Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: The Double


A unique anatomical variation of the suprascapular notch was discovered in one scapula from 610 analyzed by three-dimensional CT reconstruction. Two bony bridges were found, converting it into a double suprascapular foramen, in the left upper extremity of an 56-year-old Caucasian female. This variation might be a risk factor for suprascapular nerve entrapment. Suprascapular nerve running through inferior suprascapular foramen was discovered. Suprascapular vessels passed through superior suprascapular foramen (artery lay medially and vein laterally). A new hypothesis of double suprascapular foramen formation (mechanism of creation) is presented based on recent anatomical findings (e.g., the discovery in 2002 of the anterior coracoscapular ligament). Knowledge of the anatomical variations described in this study should be helpful in arthroscopic and open procedures at the suprascapular region and also confirms the safety of operative decompression for the suprascapular nerve.

Concepts: Blood vessel, Observation, Anatomy, Supraspinatus muscle, Suprascapular nerve, Suprascapular notch, The Double, Double variation


Currently, the use of double-lumen irrigation-suction tube for drainage has become increasingly more common. However, the insertion process is complex, and the position of the double cannula placed in this manner is not accurate. We developed a method for placing the drainage tube and use it in the treatment of an abdominal infection.

Concepts: Scientific method, The Double


Abstract Introduction: Patients with surgically altered bowel anatomy frequently undergo the double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) procedure to evaluate various small bowel diseases. There are limited data on the diagnostic yield and safety of DBE in these patients. We evaluated the diagnostic yield and complication rates of DBE in patients with surgical altered bowel anatomy. We also evaluated the success rate of DBE in achieving complete examination of the excluded segment of the small bowel and excluded stomach in these patients. Subjects and Methods: Our study was a single-center retrospective analysis of a large prospectively collected DBE database. Patients with a history of surgically altered bowel anatomy who had a DBE procedure performed between January 2006 and August 2011 were included in the study analysis. Patients' demographics, procedure indications, findings, endoscopic interventions, and postprocedural recovery data were recorded. We used frequency statistics to calculate the diagnostic yield and complication rates of DBE in these patients. Results: In total, 1215 DBEs were performed at our institution during the study period. Sixty-two patients with a history of altered bowel anatomy underwent 53 DBEs and 11 DBE-assisted endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographies (ERCPs). The overall diagnostic yield of DBE was 61%, and that of DBE-assisted ERCP was 64%. No serious early or delayed DBE-associated complications were identified. In patients with surgically altered bowel anatomy containing excluded small bowel and excluded stomach, DBE success rate to achieve their complete examination was 92% (n=46). Conclusions: DBE including DBE-assisted ERCP is feasible, safe, and associated with reasonably high diagnostic yield in patients with surgically altered bowel anatomy.

Concepts: Medical terms, Physician, Gastroenterology, Small intestine, Endoscopy, Enteroscopy, The Double, Double-balloon enteroscopy


The double burden of malnutrition affects many low and middle-income countries. This study aimed to: a) determine temporal trends in the prevalence of underweight, stunting, and at risk of overweight/ overweight or obesity in Indonesian children aged 2.0-4.9 years; and b) examine associated risk factors.

Concepts: Nutrition, Obesity, Indonesia, Body shape, The Double


The persistence of undernutrition, along with overweight and obesity, constitute the double burden of malnutrition. The present study aimed to: (i) describe the prevalence and trends of concurrent stunting and overweight in Indonesian children; (ii) identify potentially associated risk factors; and (iii) determine whether stunted children are at greater risk of overweight compared with those of healthy height.

Concepts: Present, Public health, Epidemiology, Nutrition, Obesity, Overweight, Malnutrition, The Double


Women consistently have higher sickness absence than men. The double-burden hypothesis suggests this is due to higher work-family burden in women than men. The current study aimed to systematically review prospective studies of work-family conflict and subsequent sickness absence. A systematic search was conducted in the electronic databases Medline, PsycINFO, and Embase with subject heading terms and keywords with no language or time restrictions. Two reviewers independently screened abstracts and read full-texts with pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Eight included studies ( n = 40 856 respondents) measure perceived work-family conflict and subsequent sickness absence. We found moderate evidence for a positive relationship between work-family conflict and subsequent sickness absence, and that women experience higher levels of work-family conflict than men. Work-family conflict is associated with later sickness absence, and work-family conflict is more common for women than for men. This indicates that work-family conflict may contribute to the gender gap in sick leave. However, further studies are needed to confirm whether this relationship is causal.

Concepts: Gender, Gender role, Employment, Transgender, Leave, The Double, Inclusion


Data on neuropsychiatric and behavioral genetics have attracted legal interest, as attorneys explore their use in criminal and civil cases. These developments may assist judges and juries in making difficult judgments-but they bring substantial risk of misinterpretation and misuse.

Concepts: DNA, Law, Double helix, Jury, Trial, Judge, The Double, James D. Watson


High levels of lifestyle risk factors compound medication side effects, resulting in high rates of obesity among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs). Obesity and related comorbidities increase the levels of disability and disadvantage in this population. Little research has explored the lived experiences in relation to this issue, and less has considered the experiences of women. Our aim in this study was to understand the experiences of women who gained weight after their diagnosis and treatment for SSDs. We carried out up to three in-depth qualitative interviews with 11 women over 2 years. Data were analyzed using constructivist grounded theory procedures. The women described a “double whammy”-like experience whereby weight gain and obesity came with their diagnosis and treatment of an SSD and brought with it additional challenges. The double whammy parallels the co-occurrence of mental illness and substance misuse. Implications of these parallels for service provision are discussed.

Concepts: Gain, Mental disorder, Grounded theory, Schizophrenia, Disability, Mental illness, Mental illness diagnosis by DSM and ICD, The Double


Texting on a smartphone while walking has become a customary task among young adults. In recent literature many safety concerns on distracted walking have been raised. It is often hypothesized that the allocation of attentional resources toward a secondary task can influence dynamic stability. In the double task of walking and texting it was found that gait speed is reduced, but there is scarce evidence of a modified motor control strategy compromising stability. The aim of this study is twofold: 1) to comprehensively examine the gait modifications occurring when texting while walking, including the study of the lower limb muscle activation patterns, 2) to specifically assess the co-contraction of ankle antagonist muscles. We hypothesized that texting while walking increases co-contractions of ankle antagonist muscles when the body weight is transferred from one lower limb to the other, to improve the distal motor control and joint stabilization.

Concepts: Muscle, Motor skill, Gait, Human leg, The Double


The standard treatment of relapsed multiple myeloma (MM) was either lenalidomide-dexamethasone (RD) or bortezomib-dexamethasone (VD) but it is changing rapidly for two reasons. Firstly lenalidomide and bortezomib are currently used in frontline treatment and many patients become resistant to these agents early in the course of their disease. Secondly six second-line new agents have been recently developed and offer new possibilities (pomalidomide, carfilzomib and ixazomib, panobinostat, elotuzumab and daratumumab). Recent randomized studies have shown that triple combinations adding one of these new agents (except pomalidomide) to the RD or VD regimens were superior to the double combinations in terms of response rate and progression-free survival (PFS). Their place in the treatment of first relapse is discussed here. Among these agents daratumumab is clearly a breakthrough and daratumumab-based combinations might become the preferred option in the near future. However all these drugs are expensive and are not available or affordable in all countries. We propose a decision algorithm for first relapse in fit patients with the objective of achieving the best PFS. The choice of salvage regimen is based on lenalidomide/bortezomib resistance, daratumumab availability, and cost. Autologous transplantation should be considered in younger patients if not used upfront.

Concepts: Multiple myeloma, Thalidomide, Lenalidomide, Relapse, Cost, Proteasome, Bortezomib, The Double