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Concept: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

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As a primary point of contact within the health care system, family physicians are able to play a vital role in identifying individuals with substance use disorders and connecting them to the appropriate treatment. However, there is very little data available on whether family physicians are actively screening for and treating substance use disorders. The objective of the current survey was to assess whether family physicians in Ontario are screening for alcohol, opioid and tobacco use disorders, using validated tools and providing treatment.

Concepts: Health care, Health economics, Medicine, The Current, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

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Uganda has one of the highest per capita alcohol consumption rates in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the prevalence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) remains unknown in many areas, especially in rural districts. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of alcohol consumption and of alcohol use disorder among men, and to describe the distribution of drinking intensity, among men in in Kamuli District, Uganda.

Concepts: AIDS, Malaria, Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Rural district

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Positive family history of alcohol use disorder (FHP), a variable associated with propensity for alcohol use disorder (AUD), has been linked with elevated hangover frequency and severity, after controlling for alcohol use. This implies that hangover experiences may be related to AUD. However, inadequate control of alcohol consumption levels, low alcohol dose and testing for hangover during the intoxication phase detract from these findings. Here, we present further data pertinent to understanding the relationship between family history and alcohol hangover.

Concepts: Family, Alcoholism, Alcoholic beverage, Vodka, Blood alcohol content, Family history, Hangover, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

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Consequences of heavy drinking include alcohol-induced blackouts, which are periods of amnesia for all or part of a drinking event. One risk factor for blackouts is family history of problematic alcohol use (FH+); however, research rarely distinguishes maternal from paternal FH+. The objective of this study was to examine whether maternal or paternal FH+ better predicts likelihood of experiencing blackouts than a general measure of overall FH+, and whether gender moderates this association.

Concepts: Probability, Conditional probability, Drinking culture, Cinderella effect, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

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To measure changes in socioeconomic inequality in the distribution of family physicians (general practitioners (GPs)) relative to need in England from 2004/2005 to 2013/2014.

Concepts: Cohort study, Sociology, General practitioner, Family medicine, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

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There is much interest in ultra-short alcohol screening in primary care that may support brief alcohol interventions. Brief screening consisting of one or two questions might be used alone or in combination with longer tests as recommended by the Primary Care Service Framework.

Concepts: Major depressive disorder, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

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BACKGROUND: Primary care clinicians can play an important role in identifying individuals at increased risk of cancer, but often do not obtain detailed information on family history or lifestyle factors from their patients. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of using a web-based risk appraisal tool in the primary care setting. DESIGN: Five primary care practices within an academic care network were assigned to the intervention or control group. PARTICIPANTS: We included 15,495 patients who had a new patient visit or annual exam during an 8-month period in 2010-2011. INTERVENTION: Intervention patients were asked to complete a web-based risk appraisal tool on a laptop computer immediately before their visit. Information on family history of cancer was sent to their electronic health record (EHR) for clinicians to view; if accepted, it populated coded fields and could trigger clinician reminders about colon and breast cancer screening. MAIN MEASURES: The main outcome measure was new documentation of a positive family history of cancer in coded EHR fields. Secondary outcomes included clinician reminders about screening and discussion of family history, lifestyle factors, and screening. KEY RESULTS: Among eligible intervention patients, 2.0 % had new information on family history of cancer entered in the EHR within 30 days after the visit, compared to 0.6 % of eligible control patients (adjusted odds ratio = 4.3, p = 0.03). There were no significant differences in the percent of patients who received moderate or high risk reminders for colon or breast cancer screening. CONCLUSIONS: Use of this tool was associated with increased documentation of family history of cancer in the EHR, although the percentage of patients with new family history information was low in both groups. Further research is needed to determine how risk appraisal tools can be integrated with workflow and how they affect screening and health behaviors.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Hospital, Odds ratio, Electronic health record, Personal computer, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

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BACKGROUND: The European level of alcohol consumption, and the subsequent burden of disease, is high compared to the rest of the world. While screening and brief interventions in primary healthcare are cost-effective, in most countries they have hardly been implemented in routine primary healthcare. In this study, we aim to examine the effectiveness and efficiency of three implementation interventions that have been chosen to address key barriers for improvement: training and support to address lack of knowledge and motivation in healthcare providers; financial reimbursement to compensate the time investment; and internet-based counselling to reduce workload for primary care providers.Methods/design: In a cluster randomized factorial trial, data from Catalan, English, Netherlands, Polish, and Swedish primary healthcare units will be collected on screening and brief advice rates for hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. The three implementation strategies will be provided separately and in combination in a total of seven intervention groups and compared with a treatment as usual control group. Screening and brief intervention activities will be measured at baseline, during 12 weeks and after six months. Process measures include health professionals' role security and therapeutic commitment of the participating providers (SAAPPQ questionnaire). A total of 120 primary healthcare units will be included, equally distributed over the five countries. Both intention to treat and per protocol analyses are planned to determine intervention effectiveness, using random coefficient regression modelling. DISCUSSION: Effective interventions to implement screening and brief interventions for hazardous alcohol use are urgently required. This international multi-centre trial will provide evidence to guide decision makers.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov. Trial identifier: NCT01501552.

Concepts: Health economics, Clinical trial, Randomized controlled trial, Implementation, Major depressive disorder, Binomial coefficient, Primary care, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

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Increased prevalence of language-based learning disabilities (LDs) has been previously reported in patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA). This study hypothesized that patients with focal neurodegenerative syndromes outside the language network, such as posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), would have a higher rate of nonlanguage LDs, congruent with their mainly visuospatial presentation.

Concepts: Educational psychology, Neurological disorders, Cognitive disorders, Aphasias, Semantic dementia, Posterior cortical atrophy, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Primary progressive aphasia

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To review studies about the reliability and validity of self-reported alcohol consumption measures among adults, an area which needs updating to reflect current research.

Concepts: Alcohol, Psychometrics, Validity, Reliability, Alcoholic beverage, Item response theory, Seventh-day Adventist Church, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints