SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

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Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who take methotrexate (MTX) are advised to limit their alcohol intake due to potential combined hepatotoxicity. However, data are limited to support this. The aim of this study was to quantify the risk of developing abnormal liver blood tests at different levels of alcohol consumption, using routinely collected data from primary care.

Concepts: Paracetamol, Rifampicin, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Ankylosing spondylitis, Psoriatic arthritis, Rheumatology, Liver function tests, Rheumatoid arthritis

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Abstract Background: Adults with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) show different behavioral and neurological functioning during emotional processing tasks from healthy controls. Adults with a family history (FHP) of AUD also show different activation in limbic brain areas, such as the amygdala. However, it is unclear if this pattern exists during adolescence before any episodes of heavy alcohol use. Objectives: We hypothesized that the amygdalar response to subliminally-presented fearful faces would be reduced in FHP adolescents compared to peers who were family history negative (FHN) for AUD. Method: An adapted Masked Faces paradigm was used to examine blood oxygen level-dependent response to subliminal fearful vs. neutral faces in 14 FHP (6 females, 8 males) and 15 FHN (6 females, 9 males) youth, ages 11-15 years. Both FHP and FHN youth had no history of heavy alcohol consumption. Results: A significant difference was seen between groups in the left superior parietal lobule FHN youth showed deactivation to fearful and neutral masked faces compared to baseline, whereas FHP youth showed deactivation only to fearful masked faces. No significant differences in amygdalar activation were seen between groups. Conclusion: The left superior parietal lobule is part of the fronto-parietal network, which has been implicated in attentional control. Lack of reduced neural activity to neutral faces among FHP youth may represent differences in suppressing attention networks to less salient emotional stimuli, or perhaps, a higher threshold of saliency for emotional stimuli among at-risk youth.

Concepts: Alcoholic beverage, Difference, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Frontal lobe, Cerebrum, Alcohol, Limbic system, Alcoholism

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Genetic factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of knee osteoarthritis (OA), but which knee structural changes mediate this is unclear. This study aimed to describe the differences in knee structural changes over 8 to 10 years between offspring having at least one parent with total knee replacement (TKR) for severe primary knee OA and controls with no family history of knee OA.

Concepts: Genetics, Cohort study, Family history, Mother, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Osteoarthritis, Knee replacement, Family

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Brief interventions have a modest but meaningful effect on promoting smoking cessation and reducing excessive alcohol consumption. Guidelines recommend offering such advice opportunistically and regularly but incentives vary between the two behaviours.

Concepts: Saudi Arabia, Smoking, Alcoholic beverage, Nicotine, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Wine, Alcohol, Smoking cessation

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The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends that GPs use routinely available data to identify patients most at risk of death and ill health from living in cold homes.

Concepts: Weather, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Health care, Illness

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This study examined sexual orientation change efforts (SOCE) by 1,612 individuals who are current or former members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS). Data were obtained through a comprehensive online survey from both quantitative items and open-ended written responses. A minimum of 73% of men and 43% of women in this sample attempted sexual orientation change, usually through multiple methods and across many years (on average). Developmental factors associated with attempts at sexual orientation change included higher levels of early religious orthodoxy (for all) and less supportive families and communities (for men only). Among women, those who identified as lesbian and who reported higher Kinsey attraction scores were more likely to have sought change. Of the 9 different methods surveyed, private and religious change methods (compared with therapist-led or group-based efforts) were the most common, started earlier, exercised for longer periods, and reported to be the most damaging and least effective. When sexual orientation change was identified as a goal, reported effectiveness was lower for almost all of the methods. While some beneficial SOCE outcomes (such as acceptance of same-sex attractions and reduction in depression and anxiety) were reported, the overall results support the conclusion that sexual orientation is highly resistant to explicit attempts at change and that SOCE are overwhelmingly reported to be either ineffective or damaging by participants. (PsycINFO Database Record © 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

Concepts: Latter Day Saint movement, National Association for Research & Therapy of Homosexuality, All rights reserved, Latter Day Saint, Sexual orientation, Jesus, Sexual orientation change efforts, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

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The aim of palliative care is to improve the quality of life of patients and families through the prevention and relief of suffering. Frequently, patients may choose to receive palliative care in the home. The objective of this paper is to summarize the quality and primary outcomes measured within the palliative care in the home literature. This will synthesize the current state of the literature and inform future work.

Concepts: Hospice, Nursing specialties, Life, The Current, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Palliative care, Suffering

4

Understanding how young girls respond to growing up with breast cancer family histories is critical given expansion of genetic testing and breast cancer messaging. We examined the impact of breast cancer family history on psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors among >800 girls in the multicenter LEGACY Girls Study.

Concepts: Genetics, Pleural effusion, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Metastasis, Family history, Family, Breast cancer, Cancer

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The Programme for Improving Mental Health Care (PRIME) sought to implement mental health care plans (MHCP) for four priority mental disorders (depression, alcohol use disorder, psychosis and epilepsy) into routine primary care in five low- and middle-income country districts. The impact of the MHCPs on disability was evaluated through establishment of priority disorder treatment cohorts. This paper describes the methodology of these PRIME cohorts.

Concepts: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Illness, Mental health, Health care, Psychology, Schizophrenia, Psychiatry, Mental disorder

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Obesity management is an important issue for the international primary care community. This scoping review examines the literature describing the role of the family doctor in managing adults with obesity. The methods were prospectively published and followed Joanna Briggs Institute methodology.

Concepts: Family medicine, Primary care, Obesity, Management, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, General practitioner