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Concept: The Carrier


Photonic quantum information requires high-purity, easily accessible, and scalable single-photon sources. Here, we report an electrically driven single-photon source based on colloidal quantum dots. Our solution-processed devices consist of isolated CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots sparsely buried in an insulating layer that is sandwiched between electron-transport and hole-transport layers. The devices generate single photons with near-optimal antibunching at room temperature, i.e., with a second-order temporal correlation function at zero delay (g ((2))(0)) being <0.05 for the best devices without any spectral filtering or background correction. The optimal g ((2))(0) from single-dot electroluminescence breaks the lower g ((2))(0) limit of the corresponding single-dot photoluminescence. Such highly suppressed multi-photon-emission probability is attributed to both novel device design and carrier injection/recombination dynamics. The device structure prevents background electroluminescence while offering efficient single-dot electroluminescence. A quantitative model is developed to illustrate the carrier injection/recombination dynamics of single-dot electroluminescence.

Concepts: Photon, Energy, Quantum mechanics, Condensed matter physics, Quantum dot, Qubit, Standard Model, The Carrier


Recently SnSe, a layered chalcogenide material, has attracted a great deal of attention for its excellent p-type thermoelectric property showing a remarkable ZT value of 2.6 at 923 K. For thermoelectric device applications, it is necessary to have n-type materials with comparable ZT value. Here, we report that n-type SnSe single crystals were successfully synthesized by substituting Bi at Sn sites. In addition, it was found that the carrier concentration increases with Bi content, which has a great influence on the thermoelectric properties of n-type SnSe single crystals. Indeed, we achieved the maximum ZT value of 2.2 along b axis at 733 K in the most highly doped n-type SnSe with a carrier density of -2.1 × 10(19) cm(-3) at 773 K.

Concepts: Semiconductor, Materials science, Material, Property, Thermoelectric effect, P-type semiconductor, The Carrier, Carrier Corporation


We present femtosecond broadband transient absorption experiments for the investigation of the carrier dynamics in the organolead trihalide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3. The perovskite was prepared on a mesoporous TiO2 scaffold either by 1-step deposition from solution or by 2-step methods employing deposition of lead iodide followed by an on-surface reaction with methylammonium iodide. The thin films were characterized by XRD and FTIR chemical mapping. After pumping with an ultrashort laser pulse at 400 or 500 nm, the dynamics were monitored by a broadband supercontinuum reaching from the near IR (920 nm) into the UV. Specifically, the usage of quartz substrates and thin perovskite/TiO2 films enabled us to cover the spectral development down to 320 nm. The charge carrier dynamics were largely independent from the specific route of perovskite preparation: initial ultrafast carrier relaxation steps with time constants τCC and τCOP of <0.08, 0.2 and 2.6 ps were assigned to carrier-carrier and carrier-optical phonon scattering. Pronounced sub-band-gap absorption was found in the near IR at early times. Transient carrier temperatures were extracted from a Boltzmann fit to the blue wing of the photobleach band in the time range 0.2-700 ps, allowing us to distinguish between the decay of acoustic phonons (τAP = 50 and >1000 ps) and Auger recombination (τAR = 9, 75 and 450 ps). Carrier relaxation was accompanied by formation of an absorption band around 550 nm, with a characteristic structure assignable to a transient Stark effect, i.e. a red-shift of the perovskite spectrum due to the appearance of a directed electric field in the material and possibly additional influence of lattice heating. We observed a substantial Stokes shift between the relaxed photobleach and photoluminescence bands. Contributions of unreacted PbI2 to the transient absorption features appear to be negligible.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Solar cell, Phonon, Stokes shift, Infrared, The Carrier, Stark effect, Lead(II) nitrate


To characterise the tackler’s head position during one-on-one tackling in rugby and to determine the incidence of head, neck and shoulder injuries through analysis of game videos, injury records and a questionnaire completed by the tacklers themselves.

Concepts: Head and neck anatomy, Head and neck, Injuries, Injury, The Carrier


The apolipoprotein E4 (E4) allele is present worldwide, despite its associations with higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity, accelerated cognitive decline during aging, and Alzheimer ’S: disease (AD). The E4 allele is especially prevalent in some tropical regions with a high parasite burden. Equatorial populations also face a potential dual burden of high E4 prevalence combined with parasitic infections that can also reduce cognitive performance. We examined the interactions of E4, parasite burden, and cognitive performance in a traditional, nonindustrialized population of Amazonian forager-horticulturalists (N = 372) to test whether E4 protects against cognitive decline in environments with a heavy pathogen burden. Contrary to observations in industrial populations, older adult E4 carriers with high parasite burdens either maintained or showed slight improvements in cognitive performance, whereas non-E4 carriers with a high parasite burden showed reduced cognitive performance. Being an E4 carrier is the strongest risk factor to date of AD and cognitive decline in industrial populations, it is associated with greater cognitive performance in individuals facing a high parasite and pathogen load, suggesting advantages to the E4 allele under certain environmental conditions. The current mismatch between postindustrial hygienic lifestyles and active parasite-rich environs may be critical for understanding genetic risk for cognitive aging.-Trumble, B. C., Stieglitz, J., Blackwell, A. D., Allayee, H., Beheim, B., Finch, C. E., Gurven, M., Kaplan, H. Apolipoprotein E4 is associated with improved cognitive function in Amazonian forager-horticulturalists with a high parasite burden.

Concepts: Immune system, Bacteria, Decision making, Medical statistics, Cognition, Parasitism, Prevalence, The Carrier


For the first time, hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet was used to extract trans,trans-muconic acid, in urine samples of workers who had been exposed to benzene. The parameters affecting the metabolite extraction were optimized as follows: the volume of sample solution was 11 mL with pH 2, liquid membrane containing dihexyl ether as the supporter, 15% (w/v) of trioctylphosphine oxide as the carrier, the time of extraction was 120 minutes, and stirring rate was 500 rpm. Organic phase impregnated in the pores of a hollow fiber was extracted into 24 µL solution of 0.05 mol L(-1) Na2CO3 located inside the lumen of the fiber. Under optimized conditions, a high enrichment factor of 153-182 folds, relative recovery of 83%-92%, and detection limit of 0.001 µg mL(-1) were obtained. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of ttMA in real urine samples.

Concepts: Oxygen, Blood, Urine, PH, Solvent, Solution, The Carrier, Phosphorus trichloride


The transfer of synthesized 2D MoS2 films is important for fundamental and applied research. However, it is problematic to translate the well-established transfer processes for graphene to MoS2 due to different growth mechanisms and surface properties. Here we demonstrate a surface energy-assisted process that can perfectly transfer centimeter-scale monolayer and fewlayer MoS2 films from original growth substrates onto arbitrary substrates with no observable wrinkles, cracks, and polymer residues. The unique strategies used in this process include leveraging on the penetration of water between hydrophobic MoS2 films and hydrophilic growth substrates to lift off the films and dry transferring the film after the lift off. This is in stark contrast with the previous transfer process for synthesized MoS2 films, which explores the etching of the growth substrate by hot base solutions to lift off the films. Our transfer process can effectively eliminate the mechanical force caused by bubble generations, the attacks from chemical etchants, and the capillary force induced when transferring the film outside solutions as in the previous transfer process, which consist of the major causes for the previous unsatisfactory transfer. Our transfer process also benefits from using polystyrene (PS), instead of PMMA that was widely used previously, as the carrier polymer. PS can form more intimate interaction with MoS2 films than PMMA and is an important for maintaining the integrity of the film during the transfer process. This surface energy-assisted approach can be generally applied to the transfer of other 2D materials, like WS2.

Concepts: Research, Attack, Film, Translation, The Carrier


The mitochondrial ATP-Mg/Pi carrier imports adenine nucleotides from the cytosol into the mitochondrial matrix and exports phosphate. The carrier is regulated by the concentration of cytosolic calcium, altering the size of the adenine nucleotide pool in the mitochondrial matrix in response to energetic demands. The protein consists of three domains; (i) the N-terminal regulatory domain, which is formed of two pairs of fused calcium-binding EF-hands, (ii) the C-terminal mitochondrial carrier domain, which is involved in transport, and (iii) a linker region with an amphipathic α-helix of unknown function. The mechanism by which calcium binding to the regulatory domain modulates substrate transport in the carrier domain has not been resolved. Here, we present two new crystal structures of the regulatory domain of the human isoform 1. Careful analysis by SEC confirmed that although the regulatory domain crystallised as dimers, full-length ATP-Mg/Pi carrier is monomeric. Therefore, the ATP-Mg/Pi carrier must have a different mechanism of calcium regulation than the architecturally related aspartate/glutamate carrier, which is dimeric. The structure showed that an amphipathic α-helix is bound to the regulatory domain in a hydrophobic cleft of EF-hand ¾. Detailed bioinformatics analyses of different EF-hand states indicate that upon release of calcium, EF-hands close, meaning that the regulatory domain would release the amphipathic α-helix. We propose a mechanism for ATP-Mg/Pi carriers in which the amphipathic α-helix becomes mobile upon release of calcium and could block the transport of substrates across the mitochondrial inner membrane.

Concepts: DNA, Metabolism, Adenosine triphosphate, Mitochondrion, RNA, Nucleotide, Regulation, The Carrier


We report a method to promote photoluminescence emission in graphene materials by enhancing carrier scattering instead of directly modifying band structure in multilayer reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanospheres. We intentionally curl graphene layers to form nanospheres by reducing graphene oxide with spherical polymer templates to manipulate the carrier scattering. These nanospheres produce hot-carrier luminescence with more than ten-fold improvement of emission efficiency as compared to planar nanosheets. With increasing excitation power, hot-carrier luminescence from nanospheres exhibits abnormal spectral redshift with dynamic feature associated to the strengthened electron-phonon coupling. These experimental results can be well understood by considering the screened Coulomb interactions. With increasing carrier density, the reduced screening effect promotes carrier scattering which enhances hot-carrier emission from such multilayer rGO nanospheres. This carrier-scattering scenario is further confirmed by pump-probe measurements.

Concepts: Carbon dioxide, Hydrogen, Redox, Electrochemistry, Nitrogen, The Carrier, Carrier Corporation


Hereditary folate malabsorption (HFM) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impaired intestinal folate absorption and impaired folate transport across the choroid plexus due to loss of function of the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT-SLC46A1). We report a novel mutation, causing HFM, affecting a residue located in the 11th transmembrane helix within the external gate. The mutant N411K-PCFT was stable, trafficked to the cell membrane, and had sufficient residual activity to characterize the transport defect and the structural requirements at this site for gate function. The influx Vmax of the N411K mutant was markedly decreased, as was the affinity for most, but not all, folate/antifolate substrates. The greatest loss of activity was for 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. Substitutions with positive charged residues resulted in a loss of activity (arginine > lysine > histidine). Function was retained for the negative charged aspartate, but not the larger glutamate substitutions, whereas the bulky hydrophobic (leucine), or polar (glutamine) substitutions, were tolerated. Homology models of PCFT, in the inward and outward open conformations, based upon the mammalian Glut5 fructose transporter structures, localize Asn411 protruding into the aqueous pathway. This is most prominent when the carrier is in the inward open conformation when the external gate is closed. Mutations at this site likely result in highly specific steric and electrostatic interactions between the Asn411-substituted, and other, residues in the gate region that impede carrier function. The substrate specificity of the N411K mutant may be due to alterations of substrate flows through the external gate, downstream allosteric alterations in the folate-binding pocket, or both.

Concepts: DNA, Protein, Genetics, Mutation, Amino acid, Enzyme, Essential amino acid, The Carrier