Concept: The Carrier
Photonic quantum information requires high-purity, easily accessible, and scalable single-photon sources. Here, we report an electrically driven single-photon source based on colloidal quantum dots. Our solution-processed devices consist of isolated CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots sparsely buried in an insulating layer that is sandwiched between electron-transport and hole-transport layers. The devices generate single photons with near-optimal antibunching at room temperature, i.e., with a second-order temporal correlation function at zero delay (g ((2))(0)) being <0.05 for the best devices without any spectral filtering or background correction. The optimal g ((2))(0) from single-dot electroluminescence breaks the lower g ((2))(0) limit of the corresponding single-dot photoluminescence. Such highly suppressed multi-photon-emission probability is attributed to both novel device design and carrier injection/recombination dynamics. The device structure prevents background electroluminescence while offering efficient single-dot electroluminescence. A quantitative model is developed to illustrate the carrier injection/recombination dynamics of single-dot electroluminescence.
Recently SnSe, a layered chalcogenide material, has attracted a great deal of attention for its excellent p-type thermoelectric property showing a remarkable ZT value of 2.6 at 923 K. For thermoelectric device applications, it is necessary to have n-type materials with comparable ZT value. Here, we report that n-type SnSe single crystals were successfully synthesized by substituting Bi at Sn sites. In addition, it was found that the carrier concentration increases with Bi content, which has a great influence on the thermoelectric properties of n-type SnSe single crystals. Indeed, we achieved the maximum ZT value of 2.2 along b axis at 733 K in the most highly doped n-type SnSe with a carrier density of -2.1 × 10(19) cm(-3) at 773 K.
We present femtosecond broadband transient absorption experiments for the investigation of the carrier dynamics in the organolead trihalide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3. The perovskite was prepared on a mesoporous TiO2 scaffold either by 1-step deposition from solution or by 2-step methods employing deposition of lead iodide followed by an on-surface reaction with methylammonium iodide. The thin films were characterized by XRD and FTIR chemical mapping. After pumping with an ultrashort laser pulse at 400 or 500 nm, the dynamics were monitored by a broadband supercontinuum reaching from the near IR (920 nm) into the UV. Specifically, the usage of quartz substrates and thin perovskite/TiO2 films enabled us to cover the spectral development down to 320 nm. The charge carrier dynamics were largely independent from the specific route of perovskite preparation: initial ultrafast carrier relaxation steps with time constants τCC and τCOP of <0.08, 0.2 and 2.6 ps were assigned to carrier-carrier and carrier-optical phonon scattering. Pronounced sub-band-gap absorption was found in the near IR at early times. Transient carrier temperatures were extracted from a Boltzmann fit to the blue wing of the photobleach band in the time range 0.2-700 ps, allowing us to distinguish between the decay of acoustic phonons (τAP = 50 and >1000 ps) and Auger recombination (τAR = 9, 75 and 450 ps). Carrier relaxation was accompanied by formation of an absorption band around 550 nm, with a characteristic structure assignable to a transient Stark effect, i.e. a red-shift of the perovskite spectrum due to the appearance of a directed electric field in the material and possibly additional influence of lattice heating. We observed a substantial Stokes shift between the relaxed photobleach and photoluminescence bands. Contributions of unreacted PbI2 to the transient absorption features appear to be negligible.
The apolipoprotein E4 (E4) allele is present worldwide, despite its associations with higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity, accelerated cognitive decline during aging, and Alzheimer ’S: disease (AD). The E4 allele is especially prevalent in some tropical regions with a high parasite burden. Equatorial populations also face a potential dual burden of high E4 prevalence combined with parasitic infections that can also reduce cognitive performance. We examined the interactions of E4, parasite burden, and cognitive performance in a traditional, nonindustrialized population of Amazonian forager-horticulturalists (N = 372) to test whether E4 protects against cognitive decline in environments with a heavy pathogen burden. Contrary to observations in industrial populations, older adult E4 carriers with high parasite burdens either maintained or showed slight improvements in cognitive performance, whereas non-E4 carriers with a high parasite burden showed reduced cognitive performance. Being an E4 carrier is the strongest risk factor to date of AD and cognitive decline in industrial populations, it is associated with greater cognitive performance in individuals facing a high parasite and pathogen load, suggesting advantages to the E4 allele under certain environmental conditions. The current mismatch between postindustrial hygienic lifestyles and active parasite-rich environs may be critical for understanding genetic risk for cognitive aging.-Trumble, B. C., Stieglitz, J., Blackwell, A. D., Allayee, H., Beheim, B., Finch, C. E., Gurven, M., Kaplan, H. Apolipoprotein E4 is associated with improved cognitive function in Amazonian forager-horticulturalists with a high parasite burden.
For the first time, hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet was used to extract trans,trans-muconic acid, in urine samples of workers who had been exposed to benzene. The parameters affecting the metabolite extraction were optimized as follows: the volume of sample solution was 11 mL with pH 2, liquid membrane containing dihexyl ether as the supporter, 15% (w/v) of trioctylphosphine oxide as the carrier, the time of extraction was 120 minutes, and stirring rate was 500 rpm. Organic phase impregnated in the pores of a hollow fiber was extracted into 24 µL solution of 0.05 mol L(-1) Na2CO3 located inside the lumen of the fiber. Under optimized conditions, a high enrichment factor of 153-182 folds, relative recovery of 83%-92%, and detection limit of 0.001 µg mL(-1) were obtained. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of ttMA in real urine samples.
The transfer of synthesized 2D MoS2 films is important for fundamental and applied research. However, it is problematic to translate the well-established transfer processes for graphene to MoS2 due to different growth mechanisms and surface properties. Here we demonstrate a surface energy-assisted process that can perfectly transfer centimeter-scale monolayer and fewlayer MoS2 films from original growth substrates onto arbitrary substrates with no observable wrinkles, cracks, and polymer residues. The unique strategies used in this process include leveraging on the penetration of water between hydrophobic MoS2 films and hydrophilic growth substrates to lift off the films and dry transferring the film after the lift off. This is in stark contrast with the previous transfer process for synthesized MoS2 films, which explores the etching of the growth substrate by hot base solutions to lift off the films. Our transfer process can effectively eliminate the mechanical force caused by bubble generations, the attacks from chemical etchants, and the capillary force induced when transferring the film outside solutions as in the previous transfer process, which consist of the major causes for the previous unsatisfactory transfer. Our transfer process also benefits from using polystyrene (PS), instead of PMMA that was widely used previously, as the carrier polymer. PS can form more intimate interaction with MoS2 films than PMMA and is an important for maintaining the integrity of the film during the transfer process. This surface energy-assisted approach can be generally applied to the transfer of other 2D materials, like WS2.
Population receptive field (pRF) analysis is a popular method to infer spatial selectivity of voxels in visual cortex. However, it remains largely untested how stable pRF estimates are over time. Here we measured the intersession reliability of pRF parameter estimates for the central visual field and near periphery, using a combined wedge and ring stimulus containing natural images. Sixteen healthy human participants completed two scanning sessions separated by 10-114 days. Individual participants showed very similar visual field maps for V1-V4 on both sessions. Intersession reliability for eccentricity and polar angle estimates was close to ceiling for most visual field maps (r > .8 for V1-3). PRF size and cortical magnification (CMF) estimates showed strong but lower overall intersession reliability (r ≈ .4-.6). Group level results for pRF size and CMF were highly similar between sessions. Additional control experiments confirmed that reliability does not depend on the carrier stimulus used and that reliability for pRF size and CMF is high for sessions acquired on the same day (r > .6). Our results demonstrate that pRF mapping is highly reliable across sessions.
The mitochondrial ATP-Mg/Pi carrier imports adenine nucleotides from the cytosol into the mitochondrial matrix and exports phosphate. The carrier is regulated by the concentration of cytosolic calcium, altering the size of the adenine nucleotide pool in the mitochondrial matrix in response to energetic demands. The protein consists of three domains; (i) the N-terminal regulatory domain, which is formed of two pairs of fused calcium-binding EF-hands, (ii) the C-terminal mitochondrial carrier domain, which is involved in transport, and (iii) a linker region with an amphipathic α-helix of unknown function. The mechanism by which calcium binding to the regulatory domain modulates substrate transport in the carrier domain has not been resolved. Here, we present two new crystal structures of the regulatory domain of the human isoform 1. Careful analysis by SEC confirmed that although the regulatory domain crystallised as dimers, full-length ATP-Mg/Pi carrier is monomeric. Therefore, the ATP-Mg/Pi carrier must have a different mechanism of calcium regulation than the architecturally related aspartate/glutamate carrier, which is dimeric. The structure showed that an amphipathic α-helix is bound to the regulatory domain in a hydrophobic cleft of EF-hand ¾. Detailed bioinformatics analyses of different EF-hand states indicate that upon release of calcium, EF-hands close, meaning that the regulatory domain would release the amphipathic α-helix. We propose a mechanism for ATP-Mg/Pi carriers in which the amphipathic α-helix becomes mobile upon release of calcium and could block the transport of substrates across the mitochondrial inner membrane.
Golay plate height equation with its B-term equal to 2Dm/u (Dm is molecular diffusivity of a solute in the carrier gas and u is the gas velocity) has been developed for WCOT (wall-coated open-tubular) GC columns with liquid stationary phases. In a more general case of OTC (open tubular columns) such as the PLOT (porous layer open-tubular) columns and others, the B-term is 2(Dm+kDS)/u (DS and k are the solute net diffusivity in the stationary zone and the retention factor, respectively) which can be substantially larger than 2Dm/u. A simple proof is provided together with other adjustments in Golay equation, and its interpretation.
The blending process is a key step in the production of dry powder inhaler formulations, but only little is known about the influence of process parameters. This is especially true for high shear blending of ternary formulations. For this reason, this study aims to investigate the influence of high shear mixing process parameters (mixing time and rotation speed) on the fine particle fraction (FPF) of ternary mixtures when using budesonide as model drug, two different carrier materials and two different mixing orders. Prolonged mixing time and higher rotation speeds led to lower FPFs, possibly due to higher press-on forces acting on the active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). In addition, a clear correlation between the energy consumption of the blender (the energy input into the blend) and the reduction of the FPF could be shown. Furthermore blending the carrier and the fines before adding the API was also found to be favorable.