Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: The Basics


For the last decades, nanocomposites materials have been widely studied in the scientific literature as they provide substantial properties enhancements, even at low nanoparticles content. Their performance depends on a number of parameters but the nanoparticles dispersion and distribution state remains the key challenge in order to obtain the full nanocomposites' potential in terms of, e.g., flame retardance, mechanical, barrier and thermal properties, etc., that would allow extending their use in the industry. While the amount of existing research and indeed review papers regarding the formulation of nanocomposites is already significant, after listing the most common applications, this review focuses more in-depth on the properties and materials of relevance in three target sectors: packaging, solar energy and automotive. In terms of advances in the processing of nanocomposites, this review discusses various enhancement technologies such as the use of ultrasounds for in-process nanoparticles dispersion. In the case of nanocoatings, it describes the different conventionally used processes as well as nanoparticles deposition by electro-hydrodynamic processing. All in all, this review gives the basics both in terms of composition and of processing aspects to reach optimal properties for using nanocomposites in the selected applications. As an outlook, up-to-date nanosafety issues are discussed.

Concepts: Energy, Sun, The Key, Solar energy, Solar power, Nanocomposite, Human enhancement, The Basics


Palliative care prioritizes symptom management and quality of life throughout the course of serious illness. Regardless of whether care is inpatient or outpatient, primary or subspecialty, a solid understanding of the basics of effective communication, symptom management, and end-of-life care is crucial. This article reviews these essentials and provides an overview of current evidence to support patient-centered palliative care.

Concepts: Medicine, Death, Palliative care, Symptomatic treatment, Palliative medicine, End-of-life care, Suffering, The Basics


To explore linkages between WASH and maternal and perinatal health via a conceptual approach and a scoping review.

Concepts: Health, Human, Breastfeeding, Hygiene, The Basics


Intraoperative suture anchor failure is a seemingly unavoidable event during hip arthroscopy and it can happen to the best of us. To date, biomechanical cadaveric studies saturate hip anchor failure literature with only one known, published in vivo investigation. We now know that intraoperative anchor failure is an uncommon occurrence that does not significantly vary between basic population demographics. However, we have only been provided with foundational knowledge, and our community must continue to expand upon the basics.

Concepts: Epistemology, Demographics of the United States, Knowledge, Greatest hits, Plato, The Basics, Stand Out/Fit In, BASIC


Owing to the availability of data of one biological phenomenon at different levels/scales, modelling of biological systems is moving from single level/scale to multiple levels/scales, which introduces a number of challenges. Coloured Petri nets (ColPNs) have been successfully applied to multilevel, multiscale and multidimensional modelling of some biological systems, addressing many of these challenges. In this article, we first review the basics of ColPNs and some popular extensions, and then their applications for multilevel, multiscale and multidimensional modelling of biological systems. This understanding of how to use ColPNs for modelling biological systems will assist readers in selecting appropriate ColPN classes for specific modelling circumstances.

Concepts: Natural selection, Biology, Species, Systems biology, Petri net, Carl Adam Petri, The Basics


Our ability to collect data at every stage of the translational pipeline creates great opportunities for formulating hypotheses both “upstream” (towards clinical implementation) and “downstream” (back to basic discovery). Translational researchers therefore must integrate information at multiple scales to both generate and test hypotheses-to some extent they must all be comfortable with the basics of “big data” analyses. This increased focus on data-driven science requires an understanding of basic experimental and clinical data collection-understanding that likely cannot efficiently be gathered through traditional apprenticeship models. Thus, new curricula are required to ensure that next-generation scientists have a new combination of skills required for integrating data to catalyze discovery.

Concepts: Scientific method, Science, Training, Experiment, Knowledge, The Basics, BASIC


Computational models represent more than just finite element analysis, a term that many clinicians may know and globally apply. Over the past 30 years, many published studies have addressed clinically relevant orthopaedic questions with speed and precision by using a wide variety of computational approaches. Given such a wide spectrum of techniques, clinicians often do not have a full understanding of the methods used to create models and therefore do not appreciate the strengths, weaknesses, and potential pitfalls of published results. The short, nonnumeric summaries of the methodologies employed for various computational approaches presented here can help address this issue.

Concepts: Finite element method, Orthopedic surgery, Computational fluid dynamics, Partial differential equation, Numerical analysis, Computational model, Orthopedics, The Basics


Care homes are under so much pressure that they are not ‘getting the basics right every time’, a health and social care watchdog has said.

Concepts: Health care, The Basics, Stand Out/Fit In, Gotye


The hostile environment of the microscope stage poses numerous challenges to successful imaging of morphogenesis in live tissues. This review aims to highlight some of the main practical considerations to take into account when embarking on a project to image cell behaviour in the context of cells' normal surroundings. Scrutiny of these activities is likely to be the most informative approach to understanding mechanical morphogenesis but is often confounded by the substantial technical difficulties involved in imaging samples over extended periods of time. Repeated observation of cells in live tissue requires that strategies be adopted to prioritize the stability of the sample, ensuring that it remains viable and develops normally while being held in a manner accessible to microscopic examination. Key considerations when creating reliable protocols for time-lapse imaging may be broken down into three main criteria; labelling, mounting and image acquisition. Choices and compromises made here, however, will directly influence image quality, and even small refinements can substantially improve what information may be extracted from images. Live imaging of tissue is difficult but paying close attention to the basics along with a little innovation is likely to be well rewarded.This article is part of the themed issue ‘Systems morphodynamics: understanding the development of tissue hardware’.

Concepts: Microscope, Tissue, Normal distribution, Behavior, Human behavior, IMAGE, Normality, The Basics


The National Diabetes Education Program created the 4 Steps to Manage Your Diabetes for Life (4 Steps) booklet to help patients with diabetes learn the basics of self-management and care recommendations. The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of 4 Steps on participants' diabetes management knowledge and self-efficacy in the Glycemia Reduction Approaches in Diabetes: A Comparative Effectiveness Study (GRADE).

Concepts: Psychology, Diabetes, Education, Educational psychology, Learning, Knowledge, Knowledge management, The Basics