Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: The Band


Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) has greater efficacy for weight loss in obese patients than gastric banding (BAND) surgery. We hypothesise that this may result from different effects on food hedonics via physiological changes secondary to distinct gut anatomy manipulations.

Concepts: Obesity, Bariatric surgery, Gastric bypass surgery, Bariatrics, Duodenum, Surgical procedures, Beriberi, The Band


In a continuous search for the energy-efficient electronic switches, a great attention is focused on tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) demonstrating an abrupt dependence of the source-drain current on the gate voltage. Among all TFETs, those based on one-dimensional (1D) semiconductors exhibit the steepest current switching due to the singular density of states near the band edges, though the current in 1D structures is pretty low. In this paper, we propose a TFET based on 2D graphene bilayer which demonstrates a record steep subthreshold slope enabled by van Hove singularities in the density of states near the edges of conduction and valence bands. Our simulations show the accessibility of 3.5 × 10(4) ON/OFF current ratio with 150 mV gate voltage swing, and a maximum subthreshold slope of (20 μV/dec)(-1) just above the threshold. The high ON-state current of 0.8 mA/μm is enabled by a narrow (~0.3 eV) extrinsic band gap, while the smallness of the leakage current is due to an all-electrical doping of the source and drain contacts which suppresses the band tailing and trap-assisted tunneling.

Concepts: Condensed matter physics, Semiconductor, Transistor, Electronic band structure, Band gap, Semiconductors, Valence band, The Band


Accurate estimates of chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a) from remotely sensed data for inland waters are challenging due to their optical complexity. In this study, a framework of Chl-a estimation is established for optically complex inland waters based on combination of water optical classification and two semi-empirical algorithms. Three spectrally distinct water types (Type I to Type III) are first identified using a clustering method performed on remote sensing reflectance (R(rs)) from datasets containing 231 samples from Lake Taihu, Lake Chaohu, Lake Dianchi, and Three Gorges Reservoir. The classification criteria for each optical water type are subsequently defined for MERIS images based on the spectral characteristics of the three water types. The criteria cluster every R(rs) spectrum into one of the three water types by comparing the values from band 7 (central band: 665nm), band 8 (central band: 681.25nm), and band 9 (central band: 708.75nm) of MERIS images. Based on the water classification, the type-specific three-band algorithms (TBA) and type-specific advanced three-band algorithm (ATBA) are developed for each water type using the same datasets. By pre-classifying, errors are decreased for the two algorithms, with the mean absolute percent error (MAPE) of TBA decreasing from 36.5% to 23% for the calibration datasets, and from 40% to 28% for ATBA. The accuracy of the two algorithms for validation data indicates that optical classification eliminates the need to adjust the optimal locations of the three bands or to re-parameterize to estimate Chl-a for other waters. The classification criteria and the type-specific ATBA are additionally validated by two MERIS images. The framework of first classifying optical water types based on reflectance characteristics and subsequently developing type-specific algorithms for different water types is a valid scheme for reducing errors in Chl-a estimation for optically complex inland waters.

Concepts: Estimator, Optics, Water, Spectrum, Type, Mean absolute percentage error, The Band


The hybrid material copper (II) tetrachloro-bis(phenyl ethyl ammonium) (C6H5CH2CH2NH3)2CuCl4, or PEACuCl, has been investigated by temperature-dependent spectroscopic absorption experiments. The absorption bands observed in the near-infrared region (1.3-1.9 eV) generally exhibit redshifts with increasing temperature. The temperature-induced energy shifts of the spectral components are shown to be consistently related to temperature-induced Cu-Cl bond length changes. Additionally, the thermochromic color change is caused by a charge transfer band edge redshifting (in the visible region 2.0-2.8 eV) with increasing temperature. By comparison with similar Cu-based systems, it is suggested that this shift is caused by broadening and strengthening of the band.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Light, Electromagnetic radiation, Red, Black body, Infrared, Visible spectrum, The Band


In the present work fly-ash based geopolymers with different contents of alkali-activator and water were prepared. Alkali-activation was conducted with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at the SiO2/Na2O molar ratio of 3, 4, and 5. Water content was at the ratio of 30, 40, and 50wt% in respect to the weight of the fly ash. Structural and microstructural characterization (FT-IR spectroscopy,29Si and27Al MAS NMR, X-ray diffraction, SEM) of the specimens as well as compressive strength and apparent density measurements were carried out. The obtained geopolymers are mainly amorphous due to the presence of disordered aluminosilicate phases. However, hydroxysodalite have been identified as a crystalline product of geopolymerization. The major band in the mid-infrared spectra (at about 1000cm-1) is related to SiO(Si,Al) asymmetric stretching vibrations and is an indicator of the geopolymeric network formation. Several component bands in this region can be noticed after the decomposition process. Decomposition of band at 1450cm-1(vibrations of CO bonds in bicarbonate group) has been also conducted. Higher NaOH content favors carbonation, inasmuch as the intensity of the band then increases. Both water and alkaline activator contents have an influence on compressive strength and microstructure of the obtained fly-ash based geopolymers.

Concepts: Water, Sodium, Materials science, Sodium hydroxide, Base, Fly ash, The Band, Concrete


X-Ray excited luminescence (radioluminescence, RL) spectra from nominally pure crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) are reported. The temperature range is from 20 to 673 K. Significant changes of emission band energies and intensities are observed across the temperature range. Photon energies of emission bands linked to the band gap decrease with increasing temperature in RL. This dependence fits the theoretical equations describing the temperature response of the ZnO band gap. Defect related luminescence includes a complex mixture of features at low temperature for RL. Thermoluminescence (TL) signals from 20 to 300 K confirm the presence of an unresolved feature in the RL data. Comments on the possible origin of these bands are summarized. The data underline that it is essential to record the temperature dependence for the luminescence data in order to separate overlapping spectral features.

Concepts: Light, Zinc, Zinc oxide, Band gap, The Band, Zinc sulfide, Zinc selenide, Zinc telluride


The Kardia Band (KB) is a novel technology that enables patients to record a rhythm strip using an Apple smartwatch. The band is paired with an app providing automated detection of atrial fibrillation (AF).

Concepts: Atrial fibrillation, The Band


Topology and geometry are essential to our understanding of modern physics, underlying many foundational concepts from high-energy theories, quantum information, and condensed-matter physics. In condensed-matter systems, a wide range of phenomena stem from the geometry of the band eigenstates, which is encoded in the matrix-valued Wilson line for general multiband systems. Using an ultracold gas of rubidium atoms loaded in a honeycomb optical lattice, we realize strong-force dynamics in Bloch bands that are described by Wilson lines and observe an evolution in the band populations that directly reveals the band geometry. Our technique enables a full determination of band eigenstates, Berry curvature, and topological invariants, including single- and multiband Chern and Z₂ numbers.

Concepts: Mathematics, Quantum mechanics, Fundamental physics concepts, Physics, Condensed matter physics, Chemistry, Topology, The Band


Rubber band ligation is one of the most important, cost-effective and commonly used treatments for internal hemorrhoids. Different technical approaches were developed mainly to improve efficacy and safety. The technique can be employed using an endoscope with forward-view or retroflexion or without an endoscope, using a suction elastic band ligator or a forceps ligator. Single or multiple ligations can be performed in a single session. Local anaesthetic after ligation can also be used to reduce the post-procedure pain. Mild bleeding, pain, vaso-vagal symptoms, slippage of bands, priapism, difficulty in urination, anal fissure, and chronic longitudinal ulcers are normally considered minor complications, more frequently encountered. Massive bleeding, thrombosed hemorrhoids, severe pain, urinary retention needing catheterization, pelvic sepsis and death are uncommon major complications. Mild pain after rubber band ligation is the most common complication with a high frequency in some studies. Secondary bleeding normally occurs 10 to 14 d after banding and patients taking anti-platelet and/or anti-coagulant medication have a higher risk, with some reports of massive life-threatening haemorrhage. Several infectious complications have also been reported including pelvic sepsis, Fournier’s gangrene, liver abscesses, tetanus and bacterial endocarditis. To date, seven deaths due to these infectious complications were described. Early recognition and immediate treatment of complications are fundamental for a favourable prognosis.

Concepts: Urology, Bleeding, Fournier gangrene, Hemorrhoid, Anal fissure, The Band, Rubber band ligation, Natural rubber


Hazard Banding (HB) is a process of allocating chemical substances in bands of increasing health hazard based on their hazard classifications. Recent Control Banding (CB) tools use the classifications of the United Nations Global Harmonized System (UN GHS) or the European Union Classifications, Labelling and Packaging (EU CLP) which are grouped over 5 HBs. The use of CB is growing worldwide for the risk control of substances without an Occupational Exposure Limit Value (OELV). Well-known CB-tools like HSE-COSHH Essentials, BAuA-Einfaches Maßnahmenkonzept Gefahrstoffe (EMKG), and DGUV-IFA-Spaltenmodell (IFA) use however different GHS/CLP groupings which may lead to dissimilar HBs and control regimes for individual substances. And as the choice for a CB tool seems to be determined by geography and/or local status these differences may hamper a global, aligned HSE approach. Therefore, the HB-engines of the three public CBs and an in-company (Solvay) CB called ‘Occupational Exposure Banding’ (S-OEB) were compared mutually and ranked in their relation with the OELV as the ‘de facto’ standard. This was investigated graphically and using a 5 strength indicator, statistical method. A data set of 229 substances with high-quality GHS/CLP classifications and OELVs was used. HB concentration ranges, as linked to S-OEB and COSHH, were validated against the corresponding OELV distributions. The four HB-engines allocate between 23 and 64% of the 229 substances in the same bands. The remaining substances differ at least one band, with IFA placing more substances in a higher hazard band, EMKG doing the opposite and COSHH and S-OEB in between. The overall strength scores of S-OEB, IFA, and EMGK HB-engines are higher than COSHH, with S-OEB having the highest overall strength score. The lower ends of the concentration ranges defined for the 3 ‘highest’ hazard bands of S-OEB were in good agreement with the 10(th) percentiles of the corresponding OELV distributions obtained from the substance data set. The lower ends of the COSHH concentration ranges comply with the 10(th) percentiles of the COSHH OELV distributions for dust/aerosol but not for vapour/gas substances. Both the S-OEB and COSHH concentration ranges underestimate the overall width of the OELV distributions that can span 2-3 orders of magnitude. As the performance of the S-OEB HB-engine meets our criteria of being at least as good as the public engines, it will be used as a standard within Solvay’s global operations. In addition, the method described here to evaluate the strength of HB-engines and the validity of their corresponding concentration ranges is a useful tool enabling further developments and worldwide alignment of HB.

Concepts: Statistics, European Union, Chemistry, Occupational safety and health, The Band, Occupational exposure limit