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Concept: The Band


Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) has greater efficacy for weight loss in obese patients than gastric banding (BAND) surgery. We hypothesise that this may result from different effects on food hedonics via physiological changes secondary to distinct gut anatomy manipulations.

Concepts: Obesity, Bariatric surgery, Gastric bypass surgery, Bariatrics, Duodenum, Surgical procedures, Beriberi, The Band


Accurate estimates of chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a) from remotely sensed data for inland waters are challenging due to their optical complexity. In this study, a framework of Chl-a estimation is established for optically complex inland waters based on combination of water optical classification and two semi-empirical algorithms. Three spectrally distinct water types (Type I to Type III) are first identified using a clustering method performed on remote sensing reflectance (R(rs)) from datasets containing 231 samples from Lake Taihu, Lake Chaohu, Lake Dianchi, and Three Gorges Reservoir. The classification criteria for each optical water type are subsequently defined for MERIS images based on the spectral characteristics of the three water types. The criteria cluster every R(rs) spectrum into one of the three water types by comparing the values from band 7 (central band: 665nm), band 8 (central band: 681.25nm), and band 9 (central band: 708.75nm) of MERIS images. Based on the water classification, the type-specific three-band algorithms (TBA) and type-specific advanced three-band algorithm (ATBA) are developed for each water type using the same datasets. By pre-classifying, errors are decreased for the two algorithms, with the mean absolute percent error (MAPE) of TBA decreasing from 36.5% to 23% for the calibration datasets, and from 40% to 28% for ATBA. The accuracy of the two algorithms for validation data indicates that optical classification eliminates the need to adjust the optimal locations of the three bands or to re-parameterize to estimate Chl-a for other waters. The classification criteria and the type-specific ATBA are additionally validated by two MERIS images. The framework of first classifying optical water types based on reflectance characteristics and subsequently developing type-specific algorithms for different water types is a valid scheme for reducing errors in Chl-a estimation for optically complex inland waters.

Concepts: Estimator, Optics, Water, Spectrum, Type, Mean absolute percentage error, The Band


The hybrid material copper (II) tetrachloro-bis(phenyl ethyl ammonium) (C6H5CH2CH2NH3)2CuCl4, or PEACuCl, has been investigated by temperature-dependent spectroscopic absorption experiments. The absorption bands observed in the near-infrared region (1.3-1.9 eV) generally exhibit redshifts with increasing temperature. The temperature-induced energy shifts of the spectral components are shown to be consistently related to temperature-induced Cu-Cl bond length changes. Additionally, the thermochromic color change is caused by a charge transfer band edge redshifting (in the visible region 2.0-2.8 eV) with increasing temperature. By comparison with similar Cu-based systems, it is suggested that this shift is caused by broadening and strengthening of the band.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Light, Electromagnetic radiation, Red, Black body, Infrared, Visible spectrum, The Band


Topology and geometry are essential to our understanding of modern physics, underlying many foundational concepts from high-energy theories, quantum information, and condensed-matter physics. In condensed-matter systems, a wide range of phenomena stem from the geometry of the band eigenstates, which is encoded in the matrix-valued Wilson line for general multiband systems. Using an ultracold gas of rubidium atoms loaded in a honeycomb optical lattice, we realize strong-force dynamics in Bloch bands that are described by Wilson lines and observe an evolution in the band populations that directly reveals the band geometry. Our technique enables a full determination of band eigenstates, Berry curvature, and topological invariants, including single- and multiband Chern and Z₂ numbers.

Concepts: Mathematics, Quantum mechanics, Fundamental physics concepts, Physics, Condensed matter physics, Chemistry, Topology, The Band


Recent years have shown the critical importance of inter-regional neural network connectivity in supporting healthy brain function. Such connectivity is measurable using neuroimaging techniques such as MEG, however the richness of the electrophysiological signal makes gaining a complete picture challenging. Specifically, connectivity can be calculated as statistical interdependencies between neural oscillations within a large range of different frequency bands. Further, connectivity can be computed between frequency bands. This pan-spectral network hierarchy likely helps to mediate simultaneous formation of multiple brain networks, which support ongoing task demand. However, to date it has been largely overlooked, with many electrophysiological functional connectivity studies treating individual frequency bands in isolation. Here, we combine oscillatory envelope based functional connectivity metrics with a multi-layer network framework in order to derive a more complete picture of connectivity within and between frequencies. We test this methodology using MEG data recorded during a visuomotor task, highlighting simultaneous and transient formation of motor networks in the beta band, visual networks in the gamma band and a beta to gamma interaction. Having tested our method, we use it to demonstrate differences in occipital alpha band connectivity in patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. We further show that these connectivity differences are predictive of the severity of persistent symptoms of the disease, highlighting their clinical relevance. Our findings demonstrate the unique potential of MEG to characterise neural network formation and dissolution. Further, we add weight to the argument that dysconnectivity is a core feature of the neuropathology underlying schizophrenia.

Concepts: Brain, Neuroimaging, Neuroscience, Human brain, Oscillation, Networks, The Band, The Beta Band


Hazard Banding (HB) is a process of allocating chemical substances in bands of increasing health hazard based on their hazard classifications. Recent Control Banding (CB) tools use the classifications of the United Nations Global Harmonized System (UN GHS) or the European Union Classifications, Labelling and Packaging (EU CLP) which are grouped over 5 HBs. The use of CB is growing worldwide for the risk control of substances without an Occupational Exposure Limit Value (OELV). Well-known CB-tools like HSE-COSHH Essentials, BAuA-Einfaches Maßnahmenkonzept Gefahrstoffe (EMKG), and DGUV-IFA-Spaltenmodell (IFA) use however different GHS/CLP groupings which may lead to dissimilar HBs and control regimes for individual substances. And as the choice for a CB tool seems to be determined by geography and/or local status these differences may hamper a global, aligned HSE approach. Therefore, the HB-engines of the three public CBs and an in-company (Solvay) CB called ‘Occupational Exposure Banding’ (S-OEB) were compared mutually and ranked in their relation with the OELV as the ‘de facto’ standard. This was investigated graphically and using a 5 strength indicator, statistical method. A data set of 229 substances with high-quality GHS/CLP classifications and OELVs was used. HB concentration ranges, as linked to S-OEB and COSHH, were validated against the corresponding OELV distributions. The four HB-engines allocate between 23 and 64% of the 229 substances in the same bands. The remaining substances differ at least one band, with IFA placing more substances in a higher hazard band, EMKG doing the opposite and COSHH and S-OEB in between. The overall strength scores of S-OEB, IFA, and EMGK HB-engines are higher than COSHH, with S-OEB having the highest overall strength score. The lower ends of the concentration ranges defined for the 3 ‘highest’ hazard bands of S-OEB were in good agreement with the 10(th) percentiles of the corresponding OELV distributions obtained from the substance data set. The lower ends of the COSHH concentration ranges comply with the 10(th) percentiles of the COSHH OELV distributions for dust/aerosol but not for vapour/gas substances. Both the S-OEB and COSHH concentration ranges underestimate the overall width of the OELV distributions that can span 2-3 orders of magnitude. As the performance of the S-OEB HB-engine meets our criteria of being at least as good as the public engines, it will be used as a standard within Solvay’s global operations. In addition, the method described here to evaluate the strength of HB-engines and the validity of their corresponding concentration ranges is a useful tool enabling further developments and worldwide alignment of HB.

Concepts: Statistics, European Union, Chemistry, Occupational safety and health, The Band, Occupational exposure limit


Applying accommodating resistance combined with isoinertial resistance has been demonstrated to be effective in improving neuromuscular attributes important for sport performance. The main purpose of this study was to determine if short sprints can be acutely enhanced after several sets of back squats with or without accommodating resistance. Twenty recreationally resistance-trained males (age 23.3 ± 4.4 years; height: 178.9 ± 6.5 cm; weight: 88.3 ± 10.8 kg) performed pre-post testing on 9.1 meter sprint time. Three different interventions were implemented in randomized order between pre-post 9.1 meter sprints. On three separate days subjects either sat for five minutes (CTRL), performed 5 sets of 3 repetitions at 85% of their 1RM with isoinertial load (STND), or performed 5 sets of 3 repetitions at 85% of their 1RM, with 30% of the total resistance coming from elastic band tension (BAND) between pre-post 9.1 meter sprint testing. Post-testing for 9.1 sprint time occurred immediately after the last set of squats (Post-Immediate) and on every minute for 4 minutes after the last set of squats (Post-1min, Post-2min, Post 3-min, and Post-4min). Repeated-measures ANOVA statistical analyses revealed no significant changes in sprint time across post-testing times during the CTRL and STND condition. During the BAND condition, sprint time significantly decreased from Post-Immediate to Post-4min (p = 0.002). The uniqueness of accommodating resistance could create an optimal post-activation potentiation effect to increase neuromuscular performance. Coaches and athletes can implement heavy accommodating resistance exercises to their warm-up when improving acute sprint time is desired.

Concepts: Effectiveness, Performance, Analysis of variance, International System of Units, Kilogram, Music, Sprint Nextel, The Band


The properties of any material are fundamentally determined by its electronic band structure. Each band represents a series of allowed states inside a material, relating electron energy and momentum. The occupied bands, that is, the filled electron states below the Fermi level, can be routinely measured. However, it is remarkably difficult to characterize the empty part of the band structure experimentally. Here, we present direct measurements of unoccupied bands of monolayer, bilayer and trilayer graphene. To obtain these, we introduce a technique based on low-energy electron microscopy. It relies on the dependence of the electron reflectivity on incidence angle and energy and has a spatial resolution ∼10 nm. The method can be easily applied to other nanomaterials such as van der Waals structures that are available in small crystals only.

Concepts: Electron, Fundamental physics concepts, Condensed matter physics, Semiconductor, Solid, Electronic band structure, Band gap, The Band


Numerous algorithms have been proposed to retrieve chlorophyll-a concentrations in Case 2 waters; however, the retrieval accuracy is far from satisfactory. In this research, seven algorithms are assessed with different band combinations of multispectral and hyperspectral bands using linear (LN), quadratic polynomial (QP) and power (PW) regression approaches, resulting in altogether 43 algorithmic combinations. These algorithms are evaluated by using simulated and measured datasets to understand the strengths and limitations of these algorithms. Two simulated datasets comprising 500,000 reflectance spectra each, both based on wide ranges of inherent optical properties (IOPs), are generated for the calibration and validation stages. Results reveal that the regression approach (i.e., LN, QP, and PW) has more influence on the simulated dataset than on the measured one. The algorithms that incorporated linear regression provide the highest retrieval accuracy for the simulated dataset. Results from simulated datasets reveal that the 3-band (3b) algorithm that incorporate 665-nm and 680-nm bands and band tuning selection approach outperformed other algorithms with root mean square error (RMSE) of 15.87 mg·m(-3), 16.25 mg·m(-3), and 19.05 mg·m(-3), respectively. The spatial distribution of the best performing algorithms, for various combinations of chlorophyll-a (Chla) and non-algal particles (NAP) concentrations, show that the 3b_tuning_QP and 3b_680_QP outperform other algorithms in terms of minimum RMSE frequency of 33.19% and 60.52%, respectively. However, the two algorithms failed to accurately retrieve Chla for many combinations of Chla and NAP, particularly for low Chla and NAP concentrations. In addition, the spatial distribution emphasizes that no single algorithm can provide outstanding accuracy for Chla retrieval and that multi-algorithms should be included to reduce the error. Comparing the results of the measured and simulated datasets reveal that the algorithms that incorporate the 665-nm band outperform other algorithms for measured dataset (RMSE = 36.84 mg·m(-3)), while algorithms that incorporate the band tuning approach provide the highest retrieval accuracy for the simulated dataset (RMSE = 25.05 mg·m(-3)).

Concepts: Regression analysis, Linear regression, Algorithm, Root mean square, Mean squared error, Errors and residuals in statistics, Root mean square deviation, The Band


The OH/OD stretch band on Raman spectra of water is complex, and understanding the spectral features based on water structure needs further study. This study investigates Raman spectra of isotopic substitution (IS) of water (with volume ratio VH2O/VD2O of 0/1, ¼, 1/1, 4/1 and 1/0) at temperatures from 303 to 573 K. The data show that the OH and OD stretch band profiles are similar in their dependences on temperature and IS ratio. IS reduces the band widths at low temperatures but the reducing effect diminishes above ∼450 K, due to the largely enhanced intensity of the high-frequency shoulder (∼3650 cm(-1)/2690 cm(-1)), which turns into the main peak for the OH (or OD) stretch bands when VH2O/VD2O (or VD2O/VH2O) reaches ¼ at temperatures over ∼510 K. These spectral features strongly indicate a multi-structure model stating that water has various local hydrogen bonding (HB) environments. Intermolecular vibrational couplings are important in determining the band width, while intramolecular vibrational couplings are not recommended for interpreting the OH/OD stretch band. Five dominant HB configurations are identified in water: two types of tetrahedral, single donor (SD) HB configuration, single hydrogen-bonded water (SHW), and free water (FW) without any hydrogen bonds, which are represented by five sub-bands. It is estimated that most (>50%) of the water molecules are in highly asymmetric HB environments (SD and SHW). The increase of temperature breaks HB structure and IS further promotes structure transition from tetrahedral to SD, SHW and FW. Then, number of hydrogen bonds in water are greatly reduced by temperature and IS.

Concepts: Oxygen, Water, Hydrogen, Redox, Hydrogen bond, Triple point, Boiling point, The Band