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Concept: Tetanus

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The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that adolescents aged 11-12 years routinely receive vaccines to prevent diseases, including human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers, pertussis, and meningococcal disease (1). To assess vaccination coverage among adolescents in the United States, CDC analyzed data collected regarding 21,875 adolescents through the 2015 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen).* During 2014-2015, coverage among adolescents aged 13-17 years increased for each HPV vaccine dose among males, including ≥1 HPV vaccine dose (from 41.7% to 49.8%), and increased modestly for ≥1 HPV vaccine dose among females (from 60.0% to 62.8%) and ≥1 quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) dose (from 79.3% to 81.3%). Coverage with ≥1 HPV vaccine dose was higher among adolescents living in households below the poverty level, compared with adolescents in households at or above the poverty level.(†) HPV vaccination coverage (≥1, ≥2, or ≥3 doses) increased in 28 states/local areas among males and in seven states among females. Despite limited progress, HPV vaccination coverage remained lower than MenACWY and tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) coverage, indicating continued missed opportunities for HPV-associated cancer prevention.

Concepts: Anal cancer, Cancer, Tetanus, Vaccine, Immune system, Human papillomavirus, Pertussis, HPV vaccine

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Pertussis in adults and adolescents could be reduced by replacing traditional tetanus and diphtheria (Td) boosters with reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) vaccines. This study evaluated the administration of dTpa-IPV (dTpa-inactivated poliovirus) in adults ten years after they received a booster dose of either dTpa-IPV, dTpa+IPV or Td-IPV in trial NCT01277705.

Concepts: Immunology, Public health, Polio vaccine, Diphtheria, Vaccination, Vaccine, Tetanus, Pertussis

151

The introduction of vaccination worldwide dramatically reduced the incidence of pathogenic bacterial and viral diseases. Despite the highly successful vaccination strategies, the number of cases among vaccine preventable diseases has increased in the last decade and several of those diseases are still endemic in different countries. Here we discuss some epidemiological aspects and possible arguments that may explain why ancient diseases such as, measles, polio, pertussis, diphtheria and tuberculosis are still with us.

Concepts: Pertussis, Vaccination, Tetanus, Immune system, Epidemiology, Malaria, Vaccine, Infectious disease

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A native outer membrane vesicles (NOMV) vaccine was developed from three antigenically diverse strains of Neisseria meningitidis that express the L1,8, L2, and L3,7 lipooligosaccharide (LOS) immunotypes, and whose synX, and lpxL1 genes were deleted.. Immunogenicity studies in mice showed that the vaccine induced bactericidal antibody against serogroups B, C, W, Y and X N. meningitidis strains. However, this experimental NOMV vaccine was not effective against serogroup A N. meningitidis strains. N. meningitidis capsular polysaccharide (PS) from serogroups A, C, W and Y were effective at inducing bactericidal antibody when conjugated to either tetanus toxoid or the fHbp1-fHbp2 fusion protein fHbp(1+2). The combination of the NOMV vaccine and the N. meningitidis serogroup A capsular polysaccharide (MAPS) protein conjugate was capable of inducing bactericidal antibodies against a limited number of N. meningitidis strains from serogroups A, B, C, W, Y and X tested in this study.

Concepts: Tetanus, Neisseria, Immunology, Antigen, Vaccine, Bacteria, Neisseria meningitidis, Protein

69

State and local school vaccination requirements help protect students and communities against vaccine-preventable diseases (1). CDC reports vaccination coverage and exemption data for children attending kindergarten (kindergartners) collected by federally funded immunization programs in the United States.* The typical age range for kindergartners is 4-6 years. Although vaccination requirements vary by state (the District of Columbia [DC] is counted as a state in this report.), the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that children in this age range have received, among other vaccinations, 5 doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP), 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR), and 2 doses of varicella vaccine (2). This report summarizes 2016-17 school year MMR, DTaP, and varicella vaccination coverage reported by immunization programs in 49 states, exemptions in 50 states, and kindergartners provisionally enrolled or within a grace period in 27 states. Median vaccination coverage(†) was 94.5% for the state-required number of doses of DTaP; 94.0% for 2 doses of MMR; and 93.8% for 2 doses of varicella vaccine. The median percentage of kindergartners with an exemption from at least one vaccine(§) was 2.0%, similar to 2015-16 (1.9%). Median grace period and provisional enrollment was 2.0%. Vaccination coverage remains consistently high and exemptions low at state and national levels. Local-level vaccination coverage data provide opportunities for immunization programs to identify schools, districts, counties, or regions susceptible to vaccine-preventable diseases and for schools to address undervaccination through implementation of existing state and local vaccination policies (1) to protect communities through increased coverage.

Concepts: Smallpox, Tetanus, MMR vaccine, United States, Vaccination, Measles, Vaccine, Pertussis

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Infectious diseases are responsible for an overwhelming number of deaths worldwide and their clinical management is often hampered by the emergence of multi-drug-resistant strains. Therefore, prevention through vaccination currently represents the best course of action to combat them. However, immune escape and evasion by pathogens often render vaccine development difficult. Furthermore, most currently available vaccines were empirically designed. In this review, we discuss why rational design of vaccines is not only desirable but also necessary. We introduce recent developments towards specifically tailored antigens, adjuvants, and delivery systems, and discuss the methodological gaps and lack of knowledge still hampering true rational vaccine design. Finally, we address the potential and limitations of different strategies and technologies for advancing vaccine development.

Concepts: Tetanus, Inoculation, Infectious disease, Smallpox, Malaria, Vaccine, Vaccination, Immune system

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Pre-clinical mouse models suggest that the gut microbiome modulates tumor response to checkpoint blockade immunotherapy; however, this has not been well-characterized in human cancer patients. Here we examined the oral and gut microbiome of melanoma patients undergoing anti-PD-1 immunotherapy (n=112). Significant differences were observed in the diversity and composition of the patient gut microbiome of responders ® versus non-responders (NR). Analysis of patient fecal microbiome samples (n=43, 30R, 13NR) showed significantly higher alpha diversity (p<0.01) and relative abundance of Ruminococcaceae bacteria (p<0.01) in responding patients. Metagenomic studies revealed functional differences in gut bacteria in R including enrichment of anabolic pathways. Immune profiling suggested enhanced systemic and anti-tumor immunity in responding patients with a favorable gut microbiome, as well as in germ-free mice receiving fecal transplants from responding patients. Together, these data have important implications for the treatment of melanoma patients with immune checkpoint inhibitors.

Concepts: Patience, Tetanus, Cell, Immunology, Metabolism, Patient, Gut flora, Immune system

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Because the effectiveness of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine wanes substantially after the fifth dose at ages 4 to 6 years, there is a growing cohort of adolescents who rely on tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) for protection against pertussis. Yet despite high Tdap vaccine coverage among adolescents, California experienced large pertussis outbreaks in 2010 and 2014. We investigated Tdap vaccine effectiveness (VE) and waning within Kaiser Permanente Northern California among adolescents exclusively vaccinated with DTaP vaccines.

Concepts: DPT vaccine, Vaccine, Tetanus, Pertussis

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BACKGROUND: Immune suppression may be a critical effect associated with exposure to perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), as indicated by recent data on vaccine antibody responses in children. Therefore, this information may be crucial when deciding on exposure limits. METHODS: Results obtained from follow-up of a Faroese birth cohort were used. Serum-PFC concentrations were measured at age 5 years, and serum antibody concentrations against tetanus and diphtheria toxoids were obtained at ages 7 years. Benchmark dose results were calculated in terms of serum concentrations for 431 children with complete data using linear and logarithmic curves, and sensitivity analyses were included to explore the impact of the low-dose curve shape. RESULTS: Under different linear assumptions regarding dose-dependence of the effects, benchmark dose levels were about 1.3 ng/mL serum for perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and 0.3 ng/mL serum for perfluorooctanoic acid at a benchmark dose response of 5%. These results are below average serum concentrations reported in recent population studies. Even lower results were obtained using logarithmic dose–response curves. Assumption of no effect below the lowest observed dose resulted in higher benchmark dose results, as did a benchmark response of 10%. CONCLUSIONS: The benchmark dose results obtained are in accordance with recent data on toxicity in experimental models. When the results are converted to approximate exposure limits for drinking water, current limits appear to be several hundred fold too high. Current drinking water limits therefore need to be reconsidered.

Concepts: Immunity, Tetanus, Immunology, Antibody, Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid, Water, Perfluorooctanoic acid, Immune system

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State-mandated vaccination requirements for school entry protect children and communities against vaccine-preventable diseases (1). Each school year, federally funded immunization programs (e.g., states, territories, jurisdictions) collect and report kindergarten vaccination data to CDC. This report describes vaccination coverage estimates in all 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC), and the estimated number of kindergartners with at least one vaccine exemption in 47 states and DC, during the 2015-16 school year. Median vaccination coverage* was 94.6% for 2 doses of measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (MMR); 94.2% for diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP); and 94.3% for 2 doses of varicella vaccine. MMR coverage increased in 32 states during the last year, and 22 states reported coverage ≥95% (2). A total of 45 states and DC had either a grace period allowing students to attend school before providing documentation of vaccination or provisional enrollment that allows undervaccinated students to attend school while completing a catch-up schedule. Among the 23 states that were able to voluntarily report state-level data on grace period or provisional enrollment to CDC, a median of 2.0% of kindergartners were not documented as completely vaccinated and were attending school within a grace period or were provisionally enrolled. The median percentage of kindergartners with an exemption from one or more vaccinations(†) was 1.9%. State and local immunization programs, in cooperation with schools, can improve vaccination coverage by ensuring that all kindergartners are vaccinated during the grace period or provisional enrollment.

Concepts: Tetanus, Immune system, Smallpox, Vaccination, MMR vaccine, Measles, Vaccine, Pertussis