Concept: Termination of employment
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Published almost 3 years ago
Night-shift workers are at high risk of drowsiness-related motor vehicle crashes as a result of circadian disruption and sleep restriction. However, the impact of actual night-shift work on measures of drowsiness and driving performance while operating a real motor vehicle remains unknown. Sixteen night-shift workers completed two 2-h daytime driving sessions on a closed driving track at the Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety: (i) a postsleep baseline driving session after an average of 7.6 ± 2.4 h sleep the previous night with no night-shift work, and (ii) a postnight-shift driving session following night-shift work. Physiological measures of drowsiness were collected, including infrared reflectance oculography, electroencephalography, and electrooculography. Driving performance measures included lane excursions, near-crash events, and drives terminated because of failure to maintain control of the vehicle. Eleven near-crashes occurred in 6 of 16 postnight-shift drives (37.5%), and 7 of 16 postnight-shift drives (43.8%) were terminated early for safety reasons, compared with zero near-crashes or early drive terminations during 16 postsleep drives (Fishers exact: P = 0.0088 and P = 0.0034, respectively). Participants had a significantly higher rate of lane excursions, average Johns Drowsiness Scale, blink duration, and number of slow eye movements during postnight-shift drives compared with postsleep drives (3.09/min vs. 1.49/min; 1.71 vs. 0.97; 125 ms vs. 100 ms; 35.8 vs. 19.1; respectively, P < 0.05 for all). Night-shift work increases driver drowsiness, degrading driving performance and increasing the risk of near-crash drive events. With more than 9.5 million Americans working overnight or rotating shifts and one-third of United States commutes exceeding 30 min, these results have implications for traffic and occupational safety.
Clinical trials that end prematurely (or “terminate”) raise financial, ethical, and scientific concerns. The extent to which the results of such trials are disseminated and the reasons for termination have not been well characterized.
Understanding neural representations of behavioral routines is critical for understanding complex behavior in health and disease. We demonstrate here that accentuated activity of striatal projection neurons (SPNs) at the beginning and end of such behavioral repertoires is a supraordinate representation specifically marking previously rewarded behavioral sequences independent of the individual movements making up the behavior. We recorded spike activity in the striatum and primary motor cortex as individual rats learned specific rewarded lever-press sequences, each one unique to a given rat. Motor cortical neurons mainly responded in relation to specific movements regardless of their sequence of occurrence. By contrast, striatal SPN populations in each rat fired preferentially at the initiation and termination of its acquired sequence. Critically, the SPNs did not exhibit this bracketing signal when the same rats performed unreinforced sequences containing the same sub-movements that were present in their acquired sequence. Thus, the SPN activity was specifically related to a given repetitively reinforced movement sequence. This striatal beginning-and-end activity did not appear to be dependent on motor cortical inputs. However, strikingly, simultaneously recorded fast-spiking striatal interneurons (FSIs) showed equally selective but inverse firing patterns: they fired in between the initiation and termination of the acquired sequences. These findings suggest that the striatum contains networks of neurons representing acquired sequences of behavior at a level of abstraction higher than that of the individual movements making up the sequence. We propose that such SPN-FSI networks of the striatum could underlie the acquisition of chunked behavioral units.
Archerfish are renowned for dislodging aerial prey by well-aimed shots of water. Recently it has been shown that these fish can shape their aerial jets by adjusting the dynamics of their mouth opening and closing. This allows the fish to adjust their jet to target distance so that they can forcefully hit prey over considerable distances. Here we suggest that archerfish use the same technique to also actively control jets under water. Fired from close ranges the underwater jets are powerful enough to lift up buried food particles, which the fish then can pick up. We trained fish so that we could monitor the mouth opening and closing manoeuvers during underwater shooting and compare them with those employed in aerial shooting. Our analysis suggests that the fish use the same dynamic mechanism to produce aerial and underwater jets and that they employ the same basic technique to adjust their jets in both conditions. When food is buried in substrate that consists of larger particles the fish use a brief pulse but a longer one when the substrate is more fine-grained. These findings extend the notion that archerfish can flexibly shape their jets to be appropriate in different contexts and suggest that archerfish shooting might have been shaped both by constraints in aerial and underwater shooting.
To determine the relationships between job satisfaction, work environment and successful aging and how these factors relate to Registered Nurses' intent to retire.
Although perovskites have been widely used in catalysis, tuning their surface terminations to control reaction selectivities has not been well established. In this work, we employ multiple surface sensitive techniques to characterize the surface termination (one aspect of surface reconstruction) of SrTiO3 (STO) after thermal pretreatment (Sr-enrichment) and chemical etching (Ti-enrichment). We show, using the conversion of 2-propanol as a probe reaction, that the surface termination of STO can be controlled to greatly tune catalytic acid/base properties and consequently the reaction selectivities in a wide range, which are inaccessible using single metal oxides, either SrO or TiO2. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations well explain the selectivity tuning and reaction mechanism on different surface terminations of STO. Similar catalytic tunability is also observed on BaZrO3, highlighting the generality of the finding from this work.
Few studies have examined depression as both a cause and effect of unemployment, but no prior work investigated these relationships in the context of organisational downsizing. We explored whether the exposure to downsizing is associated with subsequent depression (social causation), and whether pre-existing depression increases the risk of being laid off when organisations downsize (health selection).
A large body of empirical research documents the adverse mental health consequences of workplace bullying. However, less is known about gender and race differences in the processes that link workplace bullying and poor mental health. In the current study, we use structural equation modeling of survey data from the 2010 Health and Retirement Study (N = 2292) and draw on stress process theory to examine coworker support as a buffering mechanism against workplace bullying, and gender and race differences in the relationships between bullying and psychological distress. The results of the analysis indicate that coworker support serves as a protective buffer against workplace bullying, although the buffering effect is relatively small. We also find that the effects of workplace bullying more heavily impact women and persons of color. Specifically, women and African American individuals in our sample were less protected from the buffering mechanism of co-worker social support.
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) termination on late and very late scaffold thrombosis (ScT) in patients treated with the Absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS).
Physical and cognitive capability in mid-adulthood as determinants of retirement and extended working life in a British cohort study
- Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health
- Published about 2 years ago
Policy in many industrialized countries increasingly emphasizes extended working life. We examined associations between physical and cognitive capability in mid-adulthood and work in late adulthood.