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Concept: Terbinafine


Abstract This is a randomized, double-blind study enrolling 70 patients with onychomycosis of the finger and toenails. Clinical and mycological efficacies as well as measures of safety were assessed monthly for a maximum of 6 months of treatment. The treatment regimens were: fluconazole 1% and fluconazole 1% with urea 40%. These results indicated topical treatment of onychomycosis with a combination of fluconazole 1% and urea 40% was more effective (82.8%) than fluconazole 1% (62.8%) nail lacquer alone in treatment of dermatophytic onychomycosis. Fluconazole was well tolerated and side effects were negligible. At the end of therapy and the end of the 6-month follow-up, fluconazole 1% and urea 40% demonstrated statistically significant superiority in clinical and mycological responses compared with fluconazole 1% alone.

Concepts: Medicine, Effectiveness, Finger, Onychomycosis, Nail, Nail disease, Terbinafine, Itraconazole


In the framework of a survey on dermatophytoses, 14,619 clinical specimens taken from outpatients with symptoms suggestive of tinea and referred to a Medical Mycology laboratory in Tehran, Iran, were analyzed by direct microscopy and culture. In total, 777 dermatophyte strains recovered in culture were randomly identified by a formerly established RFLP analysis method based on the rDNA ITS regions. For confirmation of species identification, 160 isolates representing the likely entire species spectrum were subjected to ITS-sequencing. Infection was confirmed in 5,175 collected samples (35.4%) by direct microscopy and/or culture. Tinea pedis was the most prevalent type of infection (43.4%), followed by tinea unguium (21.3%), tinea cruris (20.7%), tinea corporis (9.4%), tinea manuum (4.2%), tinea capitis (0.8%) and tinea faciei (0.2%). Trichophyton interdigitale was the most common isolate (40.5%) followed by T. rubrum (34.75%), Epidermophyton floccosum (15.6%), Microsporum canis (3.9%), T. tonsurans (3.5 %) and M. gypseum (0.5%). Other species included M. ferrugineum, T. erinacei, T. violaceum, T. schoenleinii, and a very rare species T. eriotrephon (each one 0.25%). The two strains of T. eriotrephon isolated from tinea manuum and tinea faciei are the second and third reported cases worldwide. Application of DNA-based methods is an important aid in monitoring trends in dermatophytosis in the community.

Concepts: Biology, Trichophyton rubrum, Onychomycosis, Dermatophyte, Fungal diseases, Terbinafine, Mycosis-related cutaneous conditions, Dermatophytosis


Trichophyton rubrum var. raubitschekii is a rare anthropophilic dermatophyte isolated around the world from tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea pedis and tinea unguium. In this study, the isolation rate of T. rubrum var. raubitschekii was studied in 200 cases of tinea pedis and tinea unguium in Japan. The 200 clinical isolates were shown to be of downy type as their colonies on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar were white to cream, suede-like to downy, with a yellow-brown to wine-red reverse, and they produced few macroconidia. The type strain of T. rubrum var. raubitschekii (CBS 100084) and one clinical isolate (KMU 8337; isolated at Kanazawa) of downy type tested positive for urease, but the reference strain of T. rubrum (CBS 392.58) and the remaining 199 clinical isolates tested negative. Further epidemiological investigations are required to study human cases of infection with the granular type of T. rubrum and T. rubrum var. raubitschekii in Japan.

Concepts: Biology, Trichophyton rubrum, Onychomycosis, Athlete's foot, Dermatophyte, Fungal diseases, Terbinafine, Mycosis-related cutaneous conditions


Superficial fungal infections due to dermatophytes are common over the world and their frequency is constantly increasing. The aim of our study was to discuss fungal infections with frequency of occurrence, clinical stages and aetiology in patients admitted to dermatological ward and microbiological laboratory of the specialist hospital in Krakow. Investigations performed between 1995 and 2010 included the group of 5333 individuals. Dermatophyte infections, confirmed by culture, were revealed in 1007 subjects (18.9%), i.e. in 553 males and 454 females. The most frequent clinical forms of infections were tinea unguium and tinea pedis, caused mainly by Trichophyton rubrum and by Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Tinea corporis, tinea manuum, tinea capitis and tinea cruris constituted a small percentage of infections and the main aetiological factors of these dermatomycoses were also T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes. Between 1995 and 2000 there were stated small differences in the number of isolated strains of dermatophytes in comparison with the number of examined patients. Since 2006 there has been observed a decrease in number of patients in our hospital with suspected fungal infections, but per cent of positive cultures has remained unchanged in comparison with earlier period.

Concepts: Trichophyton rubrum, Onychomycosis, Athlete's foot, Dermatophyte, Fungal diseases, Terbinafine, Mycosis-related cutaneous conditions, Dermatophytosis


Tinea infections are caused by dermatophytes and are classified by the involved site. The most common infections in prepubertal children are tinea corporis and tinea capitis, whereas adolescents and adults are more likely to develop tinea cruris, tinea pedis, and tinea unguium (onychomycosis). The clinical diagnosis can be unreliable because tinea infections have many mimics, which can manifest identical lesions. For example, tinea corporis can be confused with eczema, tinea capitis can be confused with alopecia areata, and onychomycosis can be confused with dystrophic toenails from repeated low-level trauma. Physicians should confirm suspected onychomycosis and tinea capitis with a potassium hydroxide preparation or culture. Tinea corporis, tinea cruris, and tinea pedis generally respond to inexpensive topical agents such as terbinafine cream or butenafine cream, but oral antifungal agents may be indicated for extensive disease, failed topical treatment, immunocompromised patients, or severe moccasin-type tinea pedis. Oral terbinafine is first-line therapy for tinea capitis and onychomycosis because of its tolerability, high cure rate, and low cost. However, kerion should be treated with griseofulvin unless Trichophyton has been documented as the pathogen. Failure to treat kerion promptly can lead to scarring and permanent hair loss.

Concepts: Antifungal drug, Onychomycosis, Athlete's foot, Fungal diseases, Griseofulvin, Terbinafine, Mycosis-related cutaneous conditions, Dermatophytosis


Recurrence (relapse or re-infection) in onychomycosis is common, occurring in 10% to 53% of patients. However, data on prevalence is limited as few clinical studies follow patients beyond 12 months. It has been suggested that recurrence after continuous terbinafine treatment may be less common than with intermittent or continuous itraconazole therapy, probably due to the fungicidal activity of terbinafine, although these differences tended not to be significant. Relapse rates also increase with time, peaking at month 36. Although a number of factors have been suggested to play a role in recurrence, only the co-existence of diabetes has been shown to have a significant impact. Data with topical therapy is sparse; a small study showed amorolfine prophylaxis may delay recurrence. High concentrations of efinaconazole have been reported in the nail two weeks' post-treatment suggesting twice monthly prophylaxis with topical treatments may be a realistic option, and may be an important consideration in diabetic patients with onychomycosis. Data suggest that prophylaxis may need to be continued for up to three years for optimal effect. Treating tinea pedis and any immediate family members is also critical. Other preventative strategies include avoiding communal areas where infection can spread (such as swimming pools), and decontaminating footwear.

J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(3):279-282.

Concepts: Family, Clinical trial, Suggestion, Social psychology, Antifungal drug, Onychomycosis, Athlete's foot, Terbinafine


Infections caused by Trichophyton rubrum are very common in dermatological disease. It most often appears as superficial cutaneous mycosis, such as tinea manuum, tinea pedis, and tinea corporis. However, deep infection caused by T. rubrum was rarely reported. We describe a case of mixed type of deep infection caused by T. rubrum in a 45-year-old man with no significant immunodeficiency. This patient had a history of onychomycosis on the toenails without regular treatment for nearly 6 years. And, he had erythema, papule, and nodules on the submandibular area, neck, and chest for almost 1 year. After treated with intravenous infusion of cefotiam for 2 weeks, the lesion aggravated. The fungal direct microscopic examination of pyogenic fluid was positive, and the fungal cultures that produced reddish-brown and yellow pigment showed cottony, wooly, and white colony. After the DNA sequencing, it was identified as T. rubrum. We gave the patient oral terbinafine 250 mg per day and bifonazole cream for external use. Six months later, the patient’s skin lesion was disappeared, and healthy nail growth was seen in two-thirds of nail bed. The terbinafine is effective against deep infection caused by T. rubrum.

Concepts: Trichophyton rubrum, Onychomycosis, Athlete's foot, Fungal diseases, Terbinafine, Trichophyton, Dermatophytosis, Tinea corporis


Two African girls who moved to Germany only 4 weeks ago presented to the dermatological office with itchy and scaling skin lesions of the scalp and the thighs. The entire scalp of both girls was affected by a white, dry dandruff and a squamous crust. Dry centrifugal spreading erythematosquamous lesions were found on the thighs. The surface of the left thumbnail of the younger girl was whitish. The Blancophor® preparations which were performed under the suspicion of a tinea capitis et corporis and onychomycosis from skin scrapings of the scalp and the thighs, and from the thumbnail of the younger child were positive. Cultivation of three samples from the affected body sites-hair, skin and nail-revealed Trichophyton (T.) soudanense. For confirmation of the species identification, the isolates were subject of sequencing of ITS region of the rDNA and also of the translation elongation factor 1 α (TEF 1 α) gene. The phylogenetic analysis of the strains-the dendrogram of fungal strains-demonstrated the genetic differences between T. soudanense and T. rubrum. In contrast, sequencing of the TEF 1 α gene did not allow any discrimination between T. soudanense and T. rubrum. Both girls were treated orally with fluconazole. For topical treatment of both girls, ciclopirox olamine solution and terbinafine cream were administered, each once daily. After 8 weeks oral fluconazole therapy the dermatomycoses of skin, scalp, and thumbnail of both children were completely healed. Currently, in Germany and Europe, in immigrants from West African countries (e. g., from Angola) dermatophytoses due to T. soudanense have to be expected. Cultural identification of the pathogen is relatively simple. However, only molecular methods allow the exact discrimination of T. violaceum and T. rubrum.

Concepts: Molecular biology, Africa, West Africa, Antifungals, Onychomycosis, Tinea capitis, Terbinafine, Tinea versicolor


We measured and compared the physicochemical properties (pH, yield value, and squeeze force) of a drug for dermatomycosis, terbinafine hydrochloride-containing cream (brand-name product), and 12 generic products to clarify the characteristics of each product. On pH measurement, the pH value of the brand-name product, Lamisil, was 4.8, and those of the generic products ranged from 4.3 to 5.5, showing no marked difference. Furthermore, the yield value of Lamisil, as an index of cream ductility, was 122.2 dyn/cm2, and those of the generic products ranged from 42.1 to 1,621.5 dyn/cm2. In particular, the value of a generic product, Taiyo (42.1 dyn/cm2), was significantly lower, whereas that of another one, Viras (1,621.0 dyn/cm2), was significantly higher. In addition, the squeeze force was measured by attaching a HapLog®to the thumb and second finger. The value of Lamisil was 12.9 N, and those of the generic products ranged from 8.0 to 15.4 N. The values of generic products, Mylan (8.6 N), Tebinaceil (9.0 N), and Kelger (8.0 N), were significantly lower, whereas that of another one, Viras (15.4 N), was significantly higher. These results showed that there were marked differences in the pharmaceutical properties between the generic and brand-name products. The above pharmaceutical characteristics of drugs facilitated the presentation of reasons for differences in the sense of use, which characterizes external preparations, suggesting that products appropriate for individual patients can be recommended.

Concepts: Terbinafine


The present investigation’s intention was to develop an optimized nail lacquer (NL) for the management of onychomycosis.

Concepts: Present, In vitro fertilisation, In vitro, Onychomycosis, Athlete's foot, Terbinafine