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Concept: Tent


Flame-retardant and self-healing superhydrophobic coatings are fabricated on cotton fabrics by a convenient solution dipping method, which involves the sequential deposition of a trilayer of branched poly(ethylenimine) (bPEI), ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and fluorinated-decyl polyhedral oligomeric silsequioxane (F-POSS). When directly exposed to flame, such a trilayer coating generates a porous char layer because of its intumescent effect, successfully endowing the coated fabric with self-extinguishing property. Meanwhile, the preserved F-POSS in cotton fabrics and APP/bPEI coating produce a superhydrohobic surface with self-healing function. The coating can repetitively and autonomically restore superhydrophobicity once the superhydrophobicity is damaged. The resultant cotton fabrics, which are flame resistant, waterproof and self-cleaning, can be readily cleaned with simple water rinsing. Thus, the integration of self-healing superhydrophobicity with flame-retardancy provides a practical way to solve the problem regarding the washing durability of the flame-retardant coatings. The flame-retardant and superhydrophobic fabrics can endure more than 1000 cycles of abrasion under a pressure of 44.8 kPa without losing its flame-retardancy and self-healing superhydrophobicity, showing potential applications as multifunctional advanced textiles.

Concepts: Brominated flame retardant, Geology, Tent, Coatings, Coating, Yarn, Cotton, Textile


In the current work, chitosan extracted from waste shrimp shells was used in finishing formulation for cotton fabric, along with DMDHEU and other chemicals, imparting multiple performance characteristics such as wrinkle free, antibacterial and flame retardant properties. The finished fabrics were evaluated for textile properties like tensile strength, bending length, yellowness index and functional properties like crease recovery angle, antibacterial activity and flame retardancy and also for the ecological properties like formaldehyde release. The finished fabric showed excellent crease recovery, antibacterial property and flame retardancy which were retained to a moderate extent even after 20 washes. Besides formaldehyde scavenging action, chitosan clearly showed its positive role in imparting multifunctional properties to cotton.

Concepts: Aramid, Tent, Fire retardant, Yarn, Tensile strength, Flame retardant, Cotton, Textile


Flame retardant chemicals are applied to products to meet flammability standards; however, exposure to some additive FRs has been shown to be associated with adverse health effects. Previous research on FR exposure has primarily focused on chemicals applied to furniture and electronics; however, camping tents sold in the U.S., which often meet flammability standard CPAI-84, remain largely unstudied in regards to their chemical treatments. In this study, FRs from five brands of CPAI-84 compliant, two-person backpacking tents were measured and potential exposure was assessed. Dermal and inhalation exposure levels were assessed by collecting handwipes from 20 volunteers before and after tent setup, and by using active air samplers placed inside assembled tents, respectively. Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) were the most commonly detected FR in the tent materials and included triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), tris (1,3 dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP). Levels of OPFRS measured on handwipes were significantly higher post tent setup compared to pre-set up, and in the case of TDCIPP, levels were 29 times higher post-set up. OPFRs were also detected at measurable concentrations in the air inside of treated tents. Significant, positive correlations were found between FR levels in treated textiles and measures of dermal and inhalation exposure. These results demonstrate that dermal exposure to FRs occurs from handling camping tents and that inhalation exposure will likely occur while inside a tent.

Concepts: Flame retardants, Campsite, Backpacking, Fire retardant, Tent, Camping, Flame retardant


We investigated the efficacy, safety and cost of lime wash of household walls plus treatment of sand fly breeding places with bleach (i.e. environmental management or EM), insecticide impregnated durable wall lining (DWL), and bed net impregnation with slow release insecticide (ITN) for sand fly control in the Indian sub-continent.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Tent, Malaria, Indian subcontinent, Mosquito, Randomized controlled trial


The use of backpacking stoves in tents has been recognized to result in elevated carboxyhemoglobin levels and even death among tent inhabitants. A study was performed to evaluate carbon monoxide production occurring in varying tents with variable fuel types.

Concepts: Coal, Methane, Backpacking, Perl, Camping, Tent, Carbon monoxide


The objective of this research was to develop an appropriate, eco-friendly, cost-effective bioscouring methodology for removing natural impurities from cotton fabric. Maximum bioscouring was achieved using 5.0 IU xylanase and 4.0 IU pectinase with material to liquid ratio of 1:15 in a 50 mM buffer (glycine-NaOH buffer, 1.0 mM EDTA and 1% Tween-80, pH 8.5) with a treatment time of 60 min at 50 °C and an agitation speed of 60 rpm. The bioscoured cotton fabrics showed a gain of 1.17% in whiteness, 3.23% in brightness and a reduction of 4.18% in yellowness in comparison to fabric scoured with an alkaline scouring method. Further, after bleaching, the whiteness, brightness and tensile strength of the bioscoured fabrics were increased by 2.18, 2.33 and 11.74% along with a decrease of 4.61% in yellowness of bioscoured plus bleached fabrics in comparison to chemically scoured plus bleached fabrics. From the results, it is clear that bioscouring is more efficient, energy saving and an eco-friendly process and has the potential to replace the environment-damaging scouring process with the xylano-pectinolytic bioscouring process.

Concepts: Tent, Tensile strength, Chemistry, Yarn, Enzyme, PH, Cotton, Textile


Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among displaced populations in tropical zones. Bed nets are widely used to prevent malaria; however, few data are available on bed net distribution within displaced populations.

Concepts: Yellow fever, Tent, Mosquito net, Refugee, Malaria, Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Internally displaced person


We demonstrate in this study, a wrinkle-free, superhydrophilic cotton fabric (contact angle ~ 0o) by uniformly attaching specially engineered nanoparticles to plasma pre-treated cotton fabric. Because of their highly charged nature, the nanoparticles are firmly anchored on the fabric via electrostatic interactions, as confirmed by microscopy and chemical analyses. The durability of wetting behavior and wrinkle-free property of the nanoparticle-coated fabrics was evaluated via aging, laundering and abrasion tests. The strongly attached coatings are stable enough to maintain their superhydrophilic nature even after 60 days of aging at room temperature, 50 laundering cycles and 25,000 abrasion cycles. Moreover, the nanoparticle-coated superhydrophilic fabrics exhibit great wrinkle-recovery property, tensile strength as well as abrasion resistance performance up to 25,000 abrasion cycles.

Concepts: Nylon, Aramid, Electric charge, Tent, Tensile strength, Yarn, Textile, Cotton


Loomstate-, scoured- and bleached cotton fabrics were first activated by treatment with ethanolamine and; thus obtained three fabrics were submitted independently to in-situ formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using different concentrations of silver nitrate (AgNO3) in absence of other external precursor. The magnitude of AgNPs on the fabric increases by increasing AgNO3 concentrations during synthesis of AgNPs loaded fabrics irrespective of the fabric used. Loomstate- and scoured cotton fabrics with the highest amount of AgNPs exhibit spherical shape with less aggregates; opposite to their bleached mate where AgNPs are irregularly shaped with bigger size due to aggregation. The formation of AgNPs is confirmed through monitoring UV-vis absorption peak. Results signify also the formation of high density coating of silver on the surface of cotton fabric. Fabrics loaded with AgNPs exhibit superior antibacterial activity. Treatment with distilled water of AgNPs loaded scoured cotton fabric filtered by centrifugation verify the very slow launching of AgNPs indicating excellent durability; a point which advocates the use of such fabrics in infection prevention applications. Indeed, the basic and practice entailed in current studies can be nominated strongly for cleaner bactericidal finishing of cotton.

Concepts: Fiber, Silver, Tent, Silver nitrate, Cellulose, Yarn, Textile, Cotton


Encapsulation is the best method to protect the plant extracts against volatility and instability in the presence of air, light, moisture and high temperatures. Nevertheless, application of encapsulated plant extracts on the textiles requires a low-temperature and high rate processing to avoid from breaking or destroying of capsules. The present paper represents application of nanocapsules prepared by ultrasound irradiation assisted W/O/W microemulsion method on the cotton fabric through UV curing method. The surface and structure of nanocapsules and treated cotton fabric using FESEM and FT-IR indicated the spherical nanocapsules with size of 60-80nm stabilized on the fabric surface in a film layer feature. Also, the treated cotton fabric showed a good release behavior of 96h, a high stability against washing and rubbing tests and a relative good antimicrobial activity with 91, 89 and 94% reduction against S. aureus, E. coli and C. albicans, respectively.

Concepts: Cellulose, Seed, Tent, Geology, Plant, Yarn, Textile, Cotton