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Concept: Tennis


Abstract The purpose of this article was to examine the effect of equipment scaling, through the modification of tennis ball compression, on elite junior tennis players (aged 10 years) within a match-play context. The two types of ball compressions that were compared were the standard compression (the normal ball) and 75% compression (termed the modified ball). Ten boys and 10 girls participated in the study. Participants were stratified into pairs based on their Australian Age Ranking and gender. Each pair played two two-set matches: one match with standard compression balls and one match with modified balls. The characteristics of each match were analysed and compared. The results showed that the use of the modified ball increased rally speed, allowed players to strike the ball at a lower (more comfortable) height on their groundstrokes and increased the number of balls played at the net. Ball compression had no effect on the relative number of winners, forehands, backhands, first serves in and double faults. The results are discussed in relation to skill acquisition for skilled junior tennis players.

Concepts: Skill, Learning, Data compression, Baseball, Tennis, Dreyfus model of skill acquisition, Balls, Junior tennis


The purpose of this study was to probe the sex-based differences in the stroke and movement dynamics of Grand Slam hard-court tennis. Player and ball tracking data were collated for 102 male and 95 female players during the 2012-2014 Australian Open tournaments. Serve, serve return, groundstroke and movement data were compared between sexes. Serve statistics were the subject of the largest differences, with males achieving significantly faster speeds, aces and unreturned serves while also winning a greater percentage of service points. When returning serve, women contacted the ball closer to the net, lower to the ground and achieved flatter ball trajectories than males. Groundstroke frequencies were similar between sexes, although males hit with greater speed, flatter trajectories and impacted more shots inside the baseline. Distance covered per set or during points won or lost was not sex dependent, yet men exhibited faster average movement speeds. These findings highlight the need for sex-specific training and practice designs that cater to the different stroke dynamics, particularly in relation to the first serve and serve-return, as well as movement speeds.

Concepts: Male, Female, Sex, Tennis, Grand Slam, Boris Becker, Serena Williams, Roger Federer


There is very little information in tennis relating performance to both the movement of the players and the effectiveness of their shots. This study aimed to identify differences between winners and losers in the volume and intensity of their movements, as well as in the effectiveness of their shots.

Concepts: Tennis, Tennis court


National and state-level information about abortion incidence can help inform policies and programs intended to reduce levels of unintended pregnancy.

Concepts: Pregnancy, United States, Poverty in the United States, U.S. state, Abortion, Oregon, Tennis, Joseph McCarthy


“Legal intervention deaths” of civilians - cases in which someone is killed by a law-enforcement or other peace officer while that officer is on duty - and occupational homicides of law-enforcement officers have garnered increasing attention in the United States, owing to numerous recent high-profile incidents. These events are not only devastating to the victims' families and the directly affected communities or neighborhoods; they also erode the relationship between law-enforcement agencies and the diverse populations they serve. Though these killings account for a small percentage of total U.S. homicides, they represent a significant public health burden and can incite further . . .

Concepts: United States, Poverty in the United States, U.S. state, Humid subtropical climate, Tennis, Sheriff


Data describing the activity profile and physiological characteristics of tennis match-play are extensive. However, these data have generally provided descriptive accounts of the one-off match-play of amateur or lowly ranked professional players lasting <3 h. Accordingly, these research efforts have likely failed to fully capture the demands of Grand Slam tennis match-play, particularly in the men's game where matches can last >5 h. Furthermore, there is a distinct lack of evidence-based insight regarding the manifestation of fatigue within and between tennis matches, notwithstanding that skeletal muscle function has been reported to reduce following prolonged match-play. Moreover, it is evident that match-play evokes pronounced and prolonged physiological, neuromuscular and psychological perturbations that may be exacerbated with consecutive days of match-play. Separate to these internal load responses, a collection of non-uniform movement and technical performance changes are reported, though rarely from match-play data. Consequently, direct or causal links between altered physiological or muscle contractile function and subsequent match-play outcomes are lacking. Indeed, emerging evidence seems to infer that players adjust their game strategy, and the resultant execution of stroke play, to accommodate any such deterioration in physiological function. The purpose of this review was to discuss the available literature in terms of the physiological, mechanical and psychological responses that occur during prolonged match-play in the context of their likely effect on match-play performance.

Concepts: Skeletal muscle, Tennis, Grand Slam, The Championships, Wimbledon, US Open, Types of tennis match


The premier position of medical research on the U.S. national policy agenda offers an unprecedented opportunity to advance the science of patient input and marks a turning point in the evolution of patient engagement.

Concepts: Physician, Latin, Tennis



Callison, ER, Berg, KE, and Slivka, DR. Grunting in tennis increases ball velocity but not oxygen cost. J Strength Cond Res 28(7): 1915-1919, 2014-Grunting is widely used by professional tennis players, but no research has been done to verify enhanced performance with grunting. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if grunting enhanced ball velocity in groundstrokes and secondly, to determine if grunting increased the physiological cost of hitting (V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, VE/V[Combining Dot Above]O2, and RPE). Participants were 10 members of the men’s (n = 5) and women’s (n = 5) tennis teams at a Division I university who had just completed their indoor competitive season. Two hitting sessions were used as players repetitively hit forehand and backhand shots while either grunting or not grunting. Each hitting session consisted of five 2-minute periods with a 1-minute break in between each period. Ball velocity was measured with a radar gun. During each hitting session, players wore a portable metabolic measuring unit. HR was monitored using a Polar monitor, and RPE was assessed using Borg’s 6-20 scale. Grunting increased ball velocity (kph) 3.8% compared with non-grunting condition (p < 0.034) with the mean ± SD being 83.4 ± 0.6.1 and 80.3 ± 0.8.7, respectively. The physiological responses (V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, VE/V[Combining Dot Above]O2, and RPE) for the 2 hitting conditions were not significantly different for any variable. When averaged across both hitting conditions, HR over the 5-time periods was higher in periods 3-5 than period (p < 0.018) 1, whereas VE/V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and RPE were greater in periods 2-5 than period 1 (p = 0.001). RPE significantly increased over time with periods 2-5 being greater than period 1 (p = 0.001). It was concluded that grunting increased ball velocity without increasing V[Combining Dot Above]O2 or VE/V[Combining Dot Above]O2 or RPE in comparison with not grunting. It may be worthwhile for players and coaches in tennis and other sports to experiment with grunting to determine possible improvement in performance.

Concepts: Oxygen, Physiology, Menstrual cycle, Period, Tennis, Tennis shots, Justine Henin


The primary aims of this retrospective study were to describe the burden of injury presenting to the medical team and the changes in injury profile over 10 years (2003-2012) at The Championships, Wimbledon. Secondary aims included description of gender difference in rates, distribution and pathology of injuries.

Concepts: Surgery, Tennis, Grand Slam, The Championships, Wimbledon, French Open, Martina Hingis, Venus Williams, Wimbledon