SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Tendinosis

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Fluoroquinolone-associated tendon ruptures are a recognised complication, but other severe collagen-associated adverse events may also be possible. Our objectives were to confirm the association of fluoroquinolones and tendon rupture, to clarify the potential association of fluoroquinolones and retinal detachment, and to test for a potentially lethal association between fluoroquinolones and aortic aneurysms.

Concepts: Cohort study, Longitudinal study, Aortic aneurysm, Tendon, Tendinosis

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BACKGROUND: Bilateral midportion Achilles tendinopathy/tendinosis is not unusual, and treatment of both sides is often carried out. Experiments in animals suggest of the potential involvement of central neuronal mechanisms in Achilles tendinosis. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the outcome of surgery for Achilles tendinopathy. METHODS: This observational study included 13 patients (7 men and 6 women, mean age 53 years) with a long duration (6-120 months) of chronic painful bilateral midportion Achilles tendinopathy. The most painful side at the time for investigation was selected to be operated on first. Treatment was ultrasound-guided and Doppler-guided scraping procedure outside the ventral part of the tendon under local anaesthetic. The patients started walking on the first day after surgery. Follow-ups were conducted and the primary outcome was pain by visual analogue scale. In an additional part of the study, specimens from Achilles and plantaris tendons in three patients with bilateral Achilles tendinosis were examined. RESULTS: Short-term follow-ups showed postoperative improvement on the non-operated side as well as the operated side in 11 of 13 patients. Final follow-up after 37 (mean) months showed significant pain relief and patient satisfaction on both sides for these 11 patients. In 2 of 13 patients operation on the other, initially non-operated side, was instituted due to persisting pain. Morphologically, it was found that there were similar morphological effects, and immunohistochemical patterns of enzyme involved in signal substance production, bilaterally. CONCLUSION: Unilateral treatment with a scraping operation can have benefits contralaterally; the clinical implication is that unilateral surgery may be a logical first treatment in cases of bilateral Achilles tendinopathy.

Concepts: Anesthesia, Pain, Suffering, Tendon, Pain management, Tendinosis, Tendinopathy, Tendinitis

28

Achilles tendon rupture is a frequent injury with an increasing incidence. Until now, there is no consensus regarding optimal treatment. The aim of this review was to illuminate and summarize randomized controlled trials comparing surgical and non-surgical treatment of Achilles tendon ruptures during the last 10 years. Seven articles were found and they were all acceptable according to international quality assessment guidelines. Primary outcomes were re-ruptures, other complications, and functional outcomes. There was no significant difference in re-ruptures between the two treatments, but a tendency to favoring surgical treatment. Further, one study found an increased risk of soft-tissue-related complications after surgery. Patient satisfaction and time to return to work were significantly different in favor of surgery in one study, and there was also better functional outcome after surgery in some studies. These seven studies indicate that surgical patients have a faster rehabilitation. However, the differences between surgical and non-surgical treatment appear to be subtle and it could mean that rehabilitation is more important, rather than the actual initial treatment. Therefore, further studies will be needed in regard to understanding the interplay between acute surgical or non-surgical treatment, and the rehabilitation regimen for the overall outcome after Achilles tendon ruptures.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Tendon, Achilles tendon, Tendinosis, Achilles tendon rupture

26

Infection is a major complication after open reconstruction of Achilles tendon ruptures. We report on the use of vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy in the treatment of late deep infections after open Achilles tendon reconstruction. Six patients (5 males [83.33%], 1 female [16.67%]; mean age, 52.8 [range 37 to 66] years) were been treated using an identical protocol. Surgical management consisted of debridement, lavage, and necrectomy of infected tendon parts. The VAC therapy was used for local wound preconditioning and infection management. A continuous negative pressure of 125 mm Hg was applied on each wound. For final wound closure, a split-thickness skin graft was performed. The skin graft healing process was also supported by VAC therapy during the first 5 days. The VAC dressings were changed a mean average of 3 (range 1 to 4) times until split-thickness skin grafting could be performed. The mean total duration of the VAC therapy was 13.6 ± 5.9 days. The mean hospital stay was 31.2 ± 15.9 days. No complications with regard to bleeding, seroma, or hematoma formation beneath the skin graft were observed. At a mean follow-up duration of 29.9 (range 4 to 65) months, no re-infection or infection persistence was observed. The VAC device seems to be a valuable tool in the treatment of infected tendons. The generalization of these conclusions should await the results of future studies with larger patient series.

Concepts: Infection, Arithmetic mean, Tendon, Achilles tendon, Chronic wound, Tendinosis, Negative pressure wound therapy, Achilles tendon rupture

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There are two approaches available for surgical repair of the Achilles tendon: open repair, or percutaneous repair. However, there is controversy whether or not an open repair or percutaneous repair is superior. Focused Clinical Question: Which type of surgery is better in providing the best overall patient outcome, open or percutaneous repair, in physically active males and females with acute Achilles tendon ruptures? Summary of Search, “Best Evidence” Appraised and Key Findings: The literature was searched for studies of level 3 evidence or higher that investigated the effectiveness of open repair versus percutaneous repair on acute Achilles tendon ruptures in physically active males and females. The literature search resulted in four studies for possible inclusion. All three quality studies were included. Clinical Bottom Line: There is supporting evidence to indicate that percutaneous repair is the best option for Achilles tendon surgery, when it comes to the physically active population. Percutaneous repair has faster surgery times, less risk of complications, and has faster recovery times over having an open repair. This is acknowledging that every patient has a different situation and best individual option may vary patient to patient.

Concepts: Tendon, Achilles tendon, Tendinosis, Achilles tendon rupture

22

Acute rupture of the Achilles tendon is common and seen most frequently in people who participate in recreational athletics into their thirties and forties. Although goals of treatment have not changed in the past 15 years, recent studies of nonsurgical management, specifically functional bracing with early range of motion, demonstrate rerupture rates similar to those of tendon repair and result in fewer wound and soft-tissue complications. Satisfactory outcomes may be obtained with nonsurgical or surgical treatment. Newer surgical techniques, including limited open and percutaneous repair, show rerupture rates similar to those of open repair but lower overall complication rates. Early research demonstrates no improvement in functional outcomes or tendon properties with the use of platelet-rich plasma, but promising results with the use of bone marrow-derived stem cells have been seen in animal models. Further investigation is necessary to warrant routine use of biologic adjuncts in the management of acute Achilles tendon ruptures.

Concepts: Demonstration, Tendon, Achilles tendon, Tendinosis, Rupture of membranes, Achilles tendon rupture

7

Most Achilles tendon ruptures are sports related. However, few studies have examined and compared the effect of surgical repair for complete ruptures on return to play (RTP), play time, and performance across multiple sports.

Concepts: Tendon, Achilles tendon, Tendinosis, Achilles tendon rupture

4

Haglund’s syndrome is impingement of the retrocalcaneal bursa and Achilles tendon caused by a prominence of the posterosuperior calcaneus. Radiographic measurements are not sensitive or specific for diagnosing Haglund’s deformity. Localization of a bone deformity and tendinopathy in the same sagittal section of a magnetic resonance imaging scan can assist with the diagnosis in equivocal cases. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of Haglund’s syndrome in patients presenting with Achilles tendinopathy and note any associated findings to determine the criteria for a diagnosis of Haglund’s syndrome. We reviewed 40 magnetic resonance imaging scans with Achilles tendinopathy and 19 magnetic resonance imaging scans with Achilles high-grade tears and/or ruptures. Achilles tendinopathy was often in close proximity to the superior aspect of the calcaneal tuberosity, consistent with impingement (67.5%). Patients with Achilles impingement tendinopathy were more often female (p < .04) and were significantly heavier than patients presenting with noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy (p = .014) or Achilles tendon rupture (p = .010). Impingement tendinopathy occurred medially (8 of 20) and centrally (10 of 20) more often than laterally (2 of 20) and was associated with a posterior prominence or hyperconvexity with a loss of calcaneal recess more often than a superior projection (22 of 27 versus 8 of 27; p < .001). Haglund's deformity should be reserved for defining a posterior prominence or hyperconvexity with loss of calcaneal recess because this corresponds with impingement. Achilles impingement tendinopathy might be more appropriate terminology for Haglund's syndrome, because the bone deformity is often subtle. Of the 27 images with Achilles impingement tendinopathy, 10 (37.0%) extended to a location prone to Achilles tendon rupture. Given these findings, insertional and noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy are not mutually exclusive and impingement might be a subtle, unrecognized cause of Achilles tendinopathy and subsequent rupture.

Concepts: Medical imaging, Radiography, Magnetic resonance imaging, Tendon, Achilles tendon, Tendinosis, Calcaneus, Achilles tendon rupture

3

Athletes usually complain of an ongoing or chronic pain over the Achilles tendon, but recently even non-athletes are experiencing the same kind of pain which affects their daily activities. Achilles tendinosis refers to a degenerative process of the tendon without histologic or clinical signs of intratendinous inflammation. Treatment is based on whether to stimulate or prevent neovascularization. Thus, until now, there is no consensus as to the best treatment for this condition. This paper aims to review the common ways of treating this condition from the conservative to the surgical options.

Concepts: Medicine, Pain, Chronic pain, Tendon, Achilles tendon, Tendinosis

3

Abstract Objective. To summarize the best available evidence to determine if tendon needling is an effective treatment for tendinopathy. Data source. Medline and Cochrane Databases through November 2013. Review methods. Utilizing the search terms tendinopathy, needle, needling, tenotomy, dry needling, needling tendon, needle fenestration, and tendon fenestration, 17 articles were identified through our systematic literature search. Of these, 4 studies met the inclusion criteria. Four independent reviewers reviewed the articles. The study results and generated conclusions were agreed upon. Results. The studies that were included in this review suggest that tendon needling improves patient reported outcomes in patients with tendinopathy. In 2 studies evaluating tendon needling in lateral epicondylosis, one showed an improvement in a subjective visual analogue scale score of 34% (significant change > 25%) from baseline at 6 months. The other showed an improvement of 56.1% in a visual analogue scale score from baseline. In 1 study evaluating tendon needling in addition to eccentric therapy for Achilles tendinosis, the subjective Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A) score improved by 19.9 (significant change > 10) (95% CI, 13.6-26.2) from baseline. In 1 study evaluating tendon needling in rotator cuff tendinosis, the subjective shoulder pain and disability index showed statistical significant improvement from baseline at 6 months (P < 0.05). Conclusions. The evidence suggests that tendon needling improves patient-reported outcome measures in patients with tendinopathy. There is a trend that shows that the addition of autologous blood products may further improve theses outcomes.

Concepts: Better, Improve, Shoulder, Tendon, Rotator cuff, Tendinosis, Tendinopathy, Tendinitis