Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Tears


 To determine if exercise therapy is superior to arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for knee function in middle aged patients with degenerative meniscal tears.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Tears, Jury, Tear of meniscus


Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging flavivirus that causes congenital abnormalities and Guillain-Barré syndrome. ZIKV infection also results in severe eye disease characterized by optic neuritis, chorioretinal atrophy, and blindness in newborns and conjunctivitis and uveitis in adults. We evaluated ZIKV infection of the eye by using recently developed mouse models of pathogenesis. ZIKV-inoculated mice developed conjunctivitis, panuveitis, and infection of the cornea, iris, optic nerve, and ganglion and bipolar cells in the retina. This phenotype was independent of the entry receptors Axl or Mertk, given that Axl(-/-), Mertk(-/-), and Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) double knockout mice sustained levels of infection similar to those of control animals. We also detected abundant viral RNA in tears, suggesting that virus might be secreted from lacrimal glands or shed from the cornea. This model provides a foundation for studying ZIKV-induced ocular disease, defining mechanisms of viral persistence, and developing therapeutic approaches for viral infections of the eye.

Concepts: Immune system, Gene, Virus, Infection, Eye, Ophthalmology, Tears, Optic nerve



Recent advances in wearable electronics combined with wireless communications are essential to the realization of medical applications through health monitoring technologies. For example, a smart contact lens, which is capable of monitoring the physiological information of the eye and tear fluid, could provide real-time, noninvasive medical diagnostics. However, previous reports concerning the smart contact lens have indicated that opaque and brittle components have been used to enable the operation of the electronic device, and this could block the user’s vision and potentially damage the eye. In addition, the use of expensive and bulky equipment to measure signals from the contact lens sensors could interfere with the user’s external activities. Thus, we report an unconventional approach for the fabrication of a soft, smart contact lens in which glucose sensors, wireless power transfer circuits, and display pixels to visualize sensing signals in real time are fully integrated using transparent and stretchable nanostructures. The integration of this display into the smart lens eliminates the need for additional, bulky measurement equipment. This soft, smart contact lens can be transparent, providing a clear view by matching the refractive indices of its locally patterned areas. The resulting soft, smart contact lens provides real-time, wireless operation, and there are in vivo tests to monitor the glucose concentration in tears (suitable for determining the fasting glucose level in the tears of diabetic patients) and, simultaneously, to provide sensing results through the contact lens display.

Concepts: Eye, Cornea, Myopia, Lens, Contact lens, Corrective lens, Tears, Wireless energy transfer


Background Dry eye disease is a common chronic condition that is characterized by ocular discomfort and visual disturbances that decrease quality of life. Many clinicians recommend the use of supplements of n-3 fatty acids (often called omega-3 fatty acids) to relieve symptoms. Methods In a multicenter, double-blind clinical trial, we randomly assigned patients with moderate-to-severe dry eye disease to receive a daily oral dose of 3000 mg of fish-derived n-3 eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (active supplement group) or an olive oil placebo (placebo group). The primary outcome was the mean change from baseline in the score on the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI; scores range from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating greater symptom severity), which was based on the mean of scores obtained at 6 and 12 months. Secondary outcomes included mean changes per eye in the conjunctival staining score (ranging from 0 to 6) and the corneal staining score (ranging from 0 to 15), with higher scores indicating more severe damage to the ocular surface, as well as mean changes in the tear break-up time (seconds between a blink and gaps in the tear film) and the result on Schirmer’s test (length of wetting of paper strips placed on the lower eyelid), with lower values indicating more severe signs. Results A total of 349 patients were assigned to the active supplement group and 186 to the placebo group; the primary analysis included 329 and 170 patients, respectively. The mean change in the OSDI score was not significantly different between the active supplement group and the placebo group (-13.9 points and -12.5 points, respectively; mean difference in change after imputation of missing data, -1.9 points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -5.0 to 1.1; P=0.21). This result was consistent across prespecified subgroups. There were no significant differences between the active supplement group and the placebo group in mean changes from baseline in the conjunctival staining score (mean difference in change, 0.0 points; 95% CI, -0.2 to 0.1), corneal staining score (0.1 point; 95% CI, -0.2 to 0.4), tear break-up time (0.2 seconds; 95% CI, -0.1 to 0.5), and result on Schirmer’s test (0.0 mm; 95% CI, -0.8 to 0.9). At 12 months, the rate of adherence to treatment in the active supplement group was 85.2%, according to the level of n-3 fatty acids in red cells. Rates of adverse events were similar in the two trial groups. Conclusions Among patients with dry eye disease, those who were randomly assigned to receive supplements containing 3000 mg of n-3 fatty acids for 12 months did not have significantly better outcomes than those who were assigned to receive placebo. (Funded by the National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health; DREAM number, NCT02128763 .).

Concepts: Fatty acid, Fatty acids, Triglyceride, Omega-3 fatty acid, Eye, Eicosapentaenoic acid, Tears, Olive oil


In the media, numerous public figures have reported involuntary emotional outbursts arising from watching films on planes, resembling neurological phenomena such as pseudobulbar affect. Putative risk factors put forward include altitude, mild hypoxia, or alcohol. Our objective was to determine whether watching a film on an airplane is really more likely to induce involuntary, uncontrollable, or surprising crying than watching one on the ground, described in some social media as “altitude-adjusted lachrymosity syndrome” (AALS), or whether this is a pseudo-phenomena.

Concepts: Psychiatry, Emotion, Film, Tears, Art, Mass media, Tears in Heaven


Skin tears experienced by older adults require special skills to promote healing. Home healthcare providers are in key positions to manage skin tears and prevent further skin trauma. Several guidelines, risk assessments, classifications, and products exist to manage high-risk patients. Frequent evaluation of the effectiveness of the treatment and prevention strategies in an overall skin care protocol for home care patients is critical to reduce skin tear incidence and promote prompt healing when skin tears are present.

Concepts: Health care, Health care provider, Prevention, Geriatrics, Tears, Adult


BACKGROUNDS: We report successful outcomes of monocanalicularnasal intubation with Monoka tubes and endoscopic findings for Hasner valve area. This method is presented as a primary treatment modality in congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) with an enlarged lacrimal sac and chronic dacryocystitis. METHODS: In a prospective noncomparative consecutive case series, 23 eyes of 18 patients with CNLDO with an enlarged lacrimal sac and chronic dacryocystitis underwent endoscopic probing and monocanalicularnasal intubation under general anesthesia. Demographic information, including age, sex, duration of preoperative symptoms, operative endoscopic findings, timing of silicone tube removal, follow-up periods, complications, and outcomes, was analyzed. RESULTS: The study included 23 eyes of 18 patients. Mean (SD) age was 19.7 (12.2) months (range, 9-48 mo). Under nasal endoscopic view, the probe tip protruded through a balloon-like nasal mucosa around the Hasner valve. In all cases, tubes were removed in an office setting under topical anesthesia. Mean follow-up period was 24.6 (5.4) weeks. Complications, such as punctal slitting and corneal abrasion, were not observed. All patients showed successful results until the final follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In cases of CNLDO with an enlarged lacrimal sac and chronic dacryocystitis, monocanalicular intubation is recommended rather than simple probing. Monoka tube intubation has the advantages of technical ease of insertion and tube removal. Moreover, the tubing does not threaten the unprobed part of the lacrimal drainage system. Endoscopic findings revealed that the probe tip protruded through a balloon-like nasal mucosa with pus around the Hasner valve.

Concepts: Anesthesia, Ophthalmology, Mucus, Tears, Lacrimal sac, Lacrimal apparatus, Nasolacrimal duct, Nasolacrimal canal


Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjunctive mitomycin-c (MMC) during probing in adults with primary nasolacrimal duct (NLD) obstruction. Methods: This is a prospective, comparative, randomized interventional study. A total of 40 adult patients with unilateral epiphora caused by primary NLD obstruction were treated and evaluated. Lacrimal probing and irrigation with adjunctive MMC (1 mL of 0.2 mg/mL, once) in cases and only probing in controls were done. At the end of 3 months, subjective improvement in epiphora and patency on syringing were evaluated. Results: Complete subjective improvement in epiphora was found in 15% of cases as opposed to 0% in controls, at 3 months of follow-up. Moderate improvement was seen in 25% of cases as opposed to 5% of controls. Mild improvement was seen in 25% of cases as opposed to 35% in controls. The overall subjective improvement was seen in 65% of cases as opposed to 40% in controls. On syringing, NLD was patent in 30% of cases as opposed to 10% in controls at 3 months of follow-up, which was not significant. Conclusions: Use of intraoperative MMC improves the success of probing to some extent. Being a minimally invasive procedure, it can be tried in patients who refuse or are not systemically fit for undergoing dacryocystorhinostomy.

Concepts: Minimally invasive, Invasive, Invasiveness of surgical procedures, Tears, Nasolacrimal duct, Nasolacrimal canal


An avulsion of the posterior root attachment of the lateral meniscus or a radial tear close to the root attachment can lead to degenerative knee arthritis. Although the biomechanical effects of comparable injuries involving the medial meniscus have been studied, we are aware of no such study involving the lateral meniscus. We hypothesized that in situ pull-out suture repair of lateral meniscus root avulsions and of complete radial tears 3 and 6 mm from the root attachment would increase the contact area and decrease mean and peak tibiofemoral contact pressures, at all knee flexion angles, relative to the corresponding avulsion or tear condition.

Concepts: Knee, Hertzian contact stress, Cornea, Tears, Lateral meniscus, Medial meniscus, Meniscal cartilage replacement therapy, Contact mechanics