SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Team

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In three field studies, we explore the impact of providing employees and teammates with prosocial bonuses, a novel type of bonus spent on others rather than on oneself. In Experiment 1, we show that prosocial bonuses in the form of donations to charity lead to happier and more satisfied employees at an Australian bank. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we show that prosocial bonuses in the form of expenditures on teammates lead to better performance in both sports teams in Canada and pharmaceutical sales teams in Belgium. These results suggest that a minor adjustment to employee bonuses - shifting the focus from the self to others - can produce measurable benefits for employees and organizations.

Concepts: Economics, Experiment, Test method, Team

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A positive patient safety climate within teams has been associated with higher safety performance. The aim of this study was to describe and compare attitudes to patient safety among the various professionals in surgical teams in Swedish operating room (OR) departments. A further aim was to study nurse managers in the OR and medical directors' estimations of their staffs' attitudes to patient safety.

Concepts: Cross-sectional study, Surgery, Physician, Team, The Various, Rooms, Room

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Iatrogenesis often results from performance deficiencies among medical team members. Team-targeted rudeness may underlie such performance deficiencies, with individuals exposed to rude behavior being less helpful and cooperative. Our objective was to explore the impact of rudeness on the performance of medical teams.

Concepts: Team, Deviance, Etiquette, Rudeness

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Rudeness is routinely experienced by medical teams. We sought to explore the impact of rudeness on medical teams' performance and test interventions that might mitigate its negative consequences.

Concepts: Team, The A-Team

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Most scientific research is performed by teams, and for a long time, observers have inferred individual team members' contributions by interpreting author order on published articles. In response to increasing concerns about this approach, journals are adopting policies that require the disclosure of individual authors' contributions. However, it is not clear whether and how these disclosures improve upon the conventional approach. Moreover, there is little evidence on how contribution statements are written and how they are used by readers. We begin to address these questions in two studies. Guided by a conceptual model, Study 1 examines the relationship between author order and contribution statements on more than 12,000 articles to understand what information is provided by each. This analysis quantifies the risk of error when inferring contributions from author order and shows how this risk increases with team size and for certain types of authors. At the same time, the analysis suggests that some components of the value of contributions are reflected in author order but not in currently used contribution statements. Complementing the bibliometric analysis, Study 2 analyzes survey data from more than 6000 corresponding authors to examine how contribution statements are written and used. This analysis highlights important differences between fields and between senior versus junior scientists, as well as strongly diverging views about the benefits and limitations of contribution statements. On the basis of both studies, we highlight important avenues for future research and consider implications for a broad range of stakeholders.

Concepts: Scientific method, Logic, Reasoning, Writer, Contributions, Team, Author, Ghostwriter

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Most tobacco users initiate use as youth or young adults. To promote tobacco cessation for this group and encourage non-users' engagement in tobacco control efforts, a community-based organization developed a “Street Team” brief outreach intervention that enlisted youth and young adults to encourage their peers to stop tobacco use through a brief intervention. Street Team members provided education, a Quit Kit, and referrals to cessation resources at a total of 27 community events over a four-year period. Tobacco users (n = 279) completed assessments of tobacco use, quit intention, and quit self-efficacy at baseline. Self-reports of cessation outcomes including past week abstinence were assessed 1-, 3-, and 6-months post-intervention. Perceptions of the intervention were gathered from Street Team members (n = 28) and intervention participants post-intervention. T-tests and χ(2)-tests were used to compare those who completed at least one follow-up assessment to those lost to follow-up. Time effects were analyzed using fixed effect models. Missing = using analyses indicate 16.1, 18.6, and 12.5% 7-day quit rate at 1-, 3-, and 6-months follow-up. Feedback from intervention participants indicate the intervention was acceptable and that discussions with Street Team members and provision of quit kits motivated tobacco users to consider quitting. All Street Team members responded positively to their participation in the intervention. This Street Team approach for youth and young adults is promising as an effective approach to the promotion of tobacco cessation among users and engagement and empowerment in tobacco control efforts among non-users.

Concepts: Participation, Effectiveness, Tobacco, Nicotine, Smoking cessation, Assessment, Team, Quitting

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Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. Here we bridge the literature on team performance and information networks by studying teams' problem solving abilities as a function of both their within-team networks and their members' extended networks. We show that, while an assigned team’s performance is strongly correlated with its networks of expressive and instrumental ties, only the strongest ties in both networks have an effect on performance. Both networks of strong ties explain more of the variance than other factors, such as measured or self-evaluated technical competencies, or the personalities of the team members. In fact, the inclusion of the network of strong ties renders these factors non-significant in the statistical analysis. Our results have consequences for the organization of teams of scientists, engineers, and other knowledge workers tackling today’s most complex problems.

Concepts: Scientific method, Mathematics, Sociology, Science, Problem solving, Problem, Collaboration, Team

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Affective presence is a novel personality construct that describes the tendency of individuals to make their interaction partners feel similarly positive or negative. We adopt this construct, together with the input-process-output model of teamwork, to understand how team leaders influence team interaction and innovation performance. In 2 multisource studies, based on 350 individuals working in 87 teams of 2 public organizations and 734 individuals working in 69 teams of a private organization, we tested and supported hypotheses that team leader positive affective presence was positively related to team information sharing, whereas team leader negative affective presence was negatively related to the same team process. In turn, team information sharing was positively related to team innovation, mediating the effects of leader affective presence on this team output. The results indicate the value of adopting an interpersonal individual differences approach to understanding how affect-related characteristics of leaders influence interaction processes and complex performance in teams. (PsycINFO Database Record

Concepts: Understanding, Sociology, Management, Adoption, Leadership, Individual, Team, Social influence

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The aim of this study was to define and categorise different styles of play in elite soccer and associated performance indicators by using factor analysis. Furthermore, the observed teams were categorised using all factor scores. Data were collected from 97 matches from the Spanish La Liga and the English Premier League from the seasons 2006-2007 and 2010-2011 using the Amisco® system. A total of 19 performance indicators, 14 describing aspects of attacking play and five describing aspects of defensive play, were included in the factor analysis. Six factors, representing 12 different styles of play (eight attacking and four defensive), had eigenvalues greater than 1 and explained 87.54% of the total variance. Direct and possession styles of play, defined by factor 1, were the most apparent styles. Factor analysis used the performance indicators to cluster each team’s style of play. Findings showed that a team’s style of play was defined by specific performance indicators and, consequently, teams can be classified to create a playing style profile. For practical implications, playing styles profiling can be used to compare different teams and prepare for opponents in competition. Moreover, teams could use specific training drills directed to improve their styles of play.

Concepts: Factor analysis, Premier League, Association football, Team, La Liga, UEFA, UEFA Champions League, Serie A

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