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Concept: Tea tree oil


Plant-derived compounds and other natural substances are a rich potential source of compounds that kill or attenuate pathogens that are resistant to current antibiotics. Medieval societies used a range of these natural substances to treat conditions clearly recognizable to the modern eye as microbial infections, and there has been much debate over the likely efficacy of these treatments. Our interdisciplinary team, comprising researchers from both sciences and humanities, identified and reconstructed a potential remedy for Staphylococcus aureus infection from a 10th century Anglo-Saxon leechbook. The remedy repeatedly killed established S. aureus biofilms in an in vitro model of soft tissue infection and killed methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in a mouse chronic wound model. While the remedy contained several ingredients that are individually known to have some antibacterial activity, full efficacy required the combined action of several ingredients, highlighting the scholarship of premodern doctors and the potential of ancient texts as a source of new antimicrobial agents.

Concepts: Bacteria, Microbiology, Staphylococcus aureus, Infection, Antibiotic resistance, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Wound, Tea tree oil


Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is an antimicrobial agent that has potent activity against gram-positive bacteria. This study examines GML antibacterial activity in comparison to lauric acid, in broth cultures compared to biofilm cultures, and against a wide range of gram-positive, gram-negative, and non-gram staining bacteria.

Concepts: Bacteria, Microbiology, Staining, Gram-negative bacteria, Tea tree oil, Gram staining, Gram-positive bacteria, Bacteriology


The aim of this study was to seek additional data on the antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus spp. after habituation to low levels of the topical antimicrobial agent tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil. Meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were habituated to 0.075% tea tree oil for 3 days. Subsequently, the susceptibility of five isolates each of MSSA, MRSA and CoNS to fusidic acid, mupirocin, chloramphenicol, linezolid and vancomycin was determined by Etest, and susceptibility to tea tree oil, terpinen-4-ol, carvacrol and triclosan was determined by agar dilution. Following habituation to 0.075% tea tree oil, antimicrobial MICs differed between control and habituated isolates on 33 occasions (out of a possible 150), with MICs being higher in habituated isolates on 22 occasions. Using clinical breakpoint criteria, one MSSA isolate changed susceptibility category from vancomycin-susceptible (MIC=2μg/mL) to intermediate susceptibility (MIC=3μg/mL) after habituation in one of two replicates. For the non-antibiotic antimicrobial agents, MICs of habituated and control isolates differed on 12 occasions (out of a possible 120); 10 occasions in MRSA and 2 occasions in MSSA. MICs were higher for habituated isolates on five occasions. However, all the differences were one serial dilution only and were not regarded as significant. Habituation to sublethal concentrations of tea tree oil led to minor changes in MICs of antimicrobial agents, only one of which may have been clinically relevant. There is no evidence to suggest that tea tree oil induces resistance to antimicrobial agents.

Concepts: Microbiology, Staphylococcus aureus, Antibiotic resistance, Staphylococcus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Vancomycin, Antimicrobial, Tea tree oil


The intensely increasing multi-drug resistant microbial infections have encouraged the search for new antimicrobial agents. Hydrazone derivatives are known to exhibit a wide variety of biological activities including anti-microbial. In heterocyclic moiety, imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidines are the subject of immense interest for their antimicrobial activity and also for their analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties.

Concepts: Microbiology, Antimicrobial, Tea tree oil


ClO2, the so-called “ideal biocide”, could also be applied as an antiseptic if it was understood why the solution killing microbes rapidly does not cause any harm to humans or to animals. Our aim was to find the source of that selectivity by studying its reaction-diffusion mechanism both theoretically and experimentally.

Concepts: Microbiology, Oxide, Chlorine, Disinfectant, Antimicrobial, Tea tree oil, Biocide, Chlorine dioxide


A nano-HPLC-ESI-OrbiTrap study involving HCD and ETD spectra has been carried out to clarify the composition of the skin peptidome of brown Russian frogs Rana temporaria. This approach allowed determinantion of 76 individual peptides, increasing 3-fold the identified portion of the peptidome in comparison to that obtained earlier with FTICR MS. A search for the new bradykinin related peptides (BRPs) was carried out by reconstructing mass chromatograms based on the ion current of characteristic b- and y-ions. Several peptides were reported in the secretion of R. temporaria for the first time. The overall antibacterial activity of the skin secretion in general and of one individual peptide (Brevinin 1Tb) was determined using PMEU Spectrion (Portable Microbe Enrichment Unit) technology. The inhibitory effects of these peptides on Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica Serovar typhimutium were equal in scale to that reported for some antibiotics.

Concepts: Bacteria, Microbiology, Staphylococcus aureus, Skin, Salmonella enterica, Salmonella, Tea tree oil, Rana


Tea tree oil (TTO) is a steam distillate of Melaleuca alternifolia that demonstrates broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. This study was designed to document how TTO challenge influences the Staphylococcus aureus transcriptome. Overall, bioinformatic analyses (S. aureus microarray meta-database) revealed that both ethanol and TTO induce related transcriptional alterations. TTO challenge led to the down-regulation of genes involved with energy-intensive transcription and translation, and altered the regulation of genes involved with heat shock (e.g. clpC, clpL, ctsR, dnaK, groES, groEL, grpE and hrcA) and cell wall metabolism (e.g. cwrA, isaA, sle1, vraSR and vraX). Inactivation of the heat shock gene dnaK or vraSR which encodes a two-component regulatory system that responds to peptidoglycan biosynthesis inhibition led to an increase in TTO susceptibility which demonstrates a protective role for these genes in the S. aureus TTO response. A gene (mmpL) encoding a putative resistance, nodulation and cell division efflux pump was also highly induced by TTO. The principal antimicrobial TTO terpene, terpinen-4-ol, altered ten genes in a transcriptional direction analogous to TTO. Collectively, this study provides additional insight into the response of a bacterial pathogen to the antimicrobial terpene mixture TTO. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concepts: DNA, Cell, Archaea, Bacteria, Amino acid, Staphylococcus aureus, Antibiotic resistance, Tea tree oil


This review article is undertaken with a view to survey important scientific research and developmental works pertaining to antibacterial modification of textiles using nanotechnology as a new means to achieve such textiles. Inevitably, conventional antimicrobial agents and their applications to textiles are reported. This is followed by a focus on inorganic nanostructured materials that acquire good antibacterial activity and application of these materials to the textiles. Evaluation of the antibacterial efficacy is described. An outlook which envisions the importance of using nanotechnology in the antibacterial finishing of textiles is also outlined.

Concepts: Scientific method, Microbiology, Science, Research, Textile, Antimicrobial, Tea tree oil, Application software


OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the daily use of 5% tea tree oil (TTO) body wash (Novabac 5% Skin Wash) compared with standard care [Johnson’s Baby Softwash (JBS)] had a lower incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization. PATIENTS: The study setting was two intensive care units (ICUs; mixed medical, surgical and trauma) in Northern Ireland between October 2007 and July 2009. The study population comprised 391 patients who were randomized to JBS or TTO body wash. METHODS: This was a Phase 2/3, prospective, open-label, randomized, controlled trial. Trial registration: ISRCTN65190967. The primary outcome was new MRSA colonization during ICU stay. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of MRSA bacteraemia and maximum increase in sequential organ failure assessment score. RESULTS: A total of 445 patients were randomized to the study. After randomization, 54 patients were withdrawn; 30 because of a positive MRSA screen at study entry, 11 due to lack of consent, 11 were inappropriately randomized and 2 had adverse reactions. Thirty-nine (10%) patients developed new MRSA colonization (JBS n = 22, 11.2%; TTO body wash n = 17, 8.7%). The difference in percentage colonized (2.5%, 95% CI - 8.95 to 3.94; P = 0.50) was not significant. The mean maximum increase in sequential organ failure assessment score was not significant (JBS 1.44, SD 1.92; TTO body wash 1.28, SD 1.79; P = 0.85) and no study patients developed MRSA bacteraemia. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with JBS, TTO body wash cannot be recommended as an effective means of reducing MRSA colonization.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Randomized controlled trial, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Tea tree oil, Staphylococcaceae


Airborne biological particles containing viruses, bacteria, and/or fungi can be toxic and cause infections and allergy symptoms. Recently, natural materials such as tea tree oil and Sophora flavescens have shown promising antimicrobial activity when applied as air filter media. Although many of these studies demonstrated excellent antimicrobial efficacy, only a few of them considered external environmental effects such as the surrounding humidity, temperature, and natural degradation of chemicals, all of which can affect the antimicrobial performance of these natural materials. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial durability of air filters containing airborne nanoparticles from S. flavescens for 5months. Antimicrobial tests and quantitative chemical analyses were performed every 30days. Morphological changes in the nanoparticles were also evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The major antimicrobial compounds remained stable and active for ~90days at room temperature. After about 90days, the quantities of major antimicrobial compounds decreased noticeably with a consequent decrease in antimicrobial activity. These results are promising for the implementation of new technologies using natural antimicrobial products and provide useful information regarding the average life expectancy of antimicrobial filters using nanoparticles of S. flavescens.

Concepts: Chemistry, Chemical substance, Life expectancy, Scanning electron microscope, Antimicrobial, Tea tree oil, Filters, Air filter