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Concept: Taoism


In autoimmune disease, a network of diverse cytokines is produced in association with disease susceptibility to constitute the ‘cytokine milieu’ that drives chronic inflammation. It remains elusive how cytokines interact in such a complex network to sustain inflammation in autoimmune disease. This has presented huge challenges for successful drug discovery because it has been difficult to predict how individual cytokine-targeted therapy would work. Here, we combine the principles of Chinese Taoism philosophy and modern bioinformatics tools to dissect multiple layers of arbitrary cytokine interactions into discernible interfaces and connectivity maps to predict movements in the cytokine network. The key principles presented here have important implications in our understanding of cytokine interactions and development of effective cytokine-targeted therapies for autoimmune disorders.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Medicine, Bioinformatics, Interleukin 1, Interleukin, Autoimmune disease, Graves' disease, Taoism


Chinese Medicine (CM) suggests that the root of all disease lies in separation from the Tao, which occurs when Yin and Yang differentiate. Chong Mai-focused acupuncture can theoretically address this level, but an adjusted therapeutic approach could be necessary to produce the best results. In this article, the author explores some context and needling strategies used to work effectively with the Chong Mai in a unique way.

Concepts: Medicine, Han Dynasty, Traditional Chinese medicine, Yin and yang, Qi, Tai chi chuan, Chinese philosophy, Taoism


The Taoist concept of wu-wei is explored through a concept analysis, as delineated by Walker and Avant. The paradoxical nature of wu-wei is explored through different uses, defining attributes, a model case, related and illegitimate cases, antecedents and consequences, and empirical referents. Practical applications for mental health nursing assessment and interventions are offered to show potential improved outcomes with the stance of wu-wei in practice. Wu-wei arises in the emptying of the vessel (oneself) of ego, thus allowing more skillful, adaptable, collaborative mental health nursing in the moment.

Concepts: Energy, Philosophy of language, Economics, Nursing, Logic, Psychiatric and mental health nursing, Taoism, Wu wei


The bamboo slips of medicine, from No. 361 to No. 628, unearthed in Laoguanshan are of the same specification, which shall be the same one as Maishu (《》) of the Han Dynasty from Zhangjiashan in terms of the basic constitution and style. Hence, the medical slips, from No. 361 to No. 628, unearthed in Laoguanshan shall be titled as Maishu of Laoguanshan version, in which, the text on the “twelve meridians” is the combination and adaption from Yinyang Shiyi Mai Jiujiang (《》Moxibustion Therapy on the Eleven Meridians of Yin and Yang) and Zubi Shiyimai Jiujing (《》Moxibustion Therapy on the Eleven Meridians of Legs and Arms) in the slips of Maishu of the Han Dynasty from Zhangjiashan. The two chapters on “derived meridians” have compiled the names, running courses and differentiated disorders of the 12 meridians in the different eras at the early stage, and in the 9 of these 12 meridians, the prescriptions for moxibustion therapy have been attached for the treatment of the differentiated disorders, which reflexes the characteristics of mai (meridian) at different evolution stages before the formation of the concept of meridian. Regarding the descriptions on “pulse diagnostic method”, two different methods are included, one is relevant with the decision of survival span, and another is with the localization of disorders.

Concepts: Medicine, Acupuncture, Han Dynasty, Traditional Chinese medicine, Yin and yang, Qi, Chinese philosophy, Taoism


TNF and type I interferons alter TLR4 responses by reprogramming the macrophage genome.

Concepts: Apoptosis, Traditional Chinese medicine, Yin and yang, Chinese philosophy, Taoism


Reflective practice describes the cyclical interaction of learning and experience. Although the concept has been enhanced during the 20th century, the Chinese philosopher and educator Confucius indicated that wisdom is gained by reflection. Nurses can enhance their practice and gain professional satisfaction by developing the skills needed for reflective practice. Reflection can occur in the moment as well as after an event. To develop the skills needed for reflective practice, the nurse must first make a commitment to reflection. Reflection can lead to increased confidence, which allows nurses to use their voice to question authority.

Concepts: 20th century, Confucianism, Laozi, Taoism, Eastern philosophy, Neo-Confucianism


Langerhans cells are specialized sentinels present in the epidermis expressing Langerin, a specific C-type lectin receptor involved in HIV capture and destruction. Recently, the specific mechanism leading to this HIV restriction was discovered. Nevertheless, Langerhans cells can be infected and the way HIV escapes this restriction needs to be unraveled.

Concepts: Traditional Chinese medicine, Langerhans cell, Yin and yang, Chinese philosophy, Taoism


The reported rates of current smoking at the time of Crohn’s disease (CD) diagnosis tend to be low in East Asian studies. However, we hypothesized that East Asian patients may be reluctant to disclose their smoking history, likely because of the influence of the Confucian culture.

Concepts: Crohn's disease, Asia, East Asia, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, East Asian studies, Culture of Korea


microRNA assessments in biological samples can be performed by different methods that mainly rely on hybridization process, qPCR or RNA sequencing. With the aim to detect and validate microRNA biomarkers in tumor samples, we challenged the consistency of the quantitative results obtained with the different methods.

Concepts: Gene, Molecular biology, Biotechnology, Traditional Chinese medicine, Yin and yang, Chinese philosophy, Taoism