Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Tailor


Graphene-based three-dimensional porous macrostructures are believed of great importance in various applications, e.g. supercapacitors, photovoltaic cells, sensors and high-efficiency sorbents. However, to precisely control the microstructures and properties of this material to meet different application requirements in industrial practice remains challenging. We herein propose a facile and highly effective strategy for large-range tailoring the porous architecture and its properties by a modified freeze casting process. The pore sizes and wall thicknesses of the porous graphene can be gradually tuned by 80 times (from 10 to 800 μm) and 4000 times (from 20 nm to 80 μm), respectively. The property experiences the changing from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, with the Young’s Modulus varying by 15 times. The fundamental principle of the porous microstructure evolution is discussed in detail. Our results demonstrate a very convenient and general protocol to finely tailor the structure and further benefit the various applications of porous graphene.

Concepts: Materials science, Photovoltaics, Metallurgy, Young's modulus, Property, Tailor, Microstructure, Ceramography


Combined heredity of surnames and physique, coupled with past marriage patterns and trade-specific physical aptitude and selection factors, may have led to differential assortment of bodily characteristics among present-day men with specific trade-reflecting surnames (Tailor vs. Smith). Two studies reported here were partially consistent with this genetic-social hypothesis, first proposed by Bäumler (1980). Study 1 (N = 224) indicated significantly higher self-rated physical aptitude for prototypically strength-related activities (professions, sports, hobbies) in a random sample of Smiths. The counterpart effect (higher aptitude for dexterity-related activities among Tailors) was directionally correct, but not significant, and Tailor-Smith differences in basic physique variables were nil. Study 2 examined two large total-population-of-interest datasets (Austria/Germany combined, and UK: N = 7001 and 20532) of men’s national high-score lists for track-and-field events requiring different physiques. In both datasets, proportions of Smiths significantly increased from light-stature over medium-stature to heavy-stature sports categories. The predicted counterpart effect (decreasing prevalences of Tailors along these categories) was not supported. Related prior findings, the viability of possible alternative interpretations of the evidence (differential positive selection for trades and occupations, differential endogamy and assortative mating patterns, implicit egotism effects), and directions for further inquiry are discussed in conclusion.

Concepts: Natural selection, Sexual selection, Selection, Mating, Assortative mating, Directional selection, Tailor, Surname


REALISE Asia-an online questionnaire-based study of Asian asthma patients-identified five patient clusters defined in terms of their control status and attitude towards their asthma (categorised as: ‘Well-adjusted and at least partly controlled’; ‘In denial about symptoms’; ‘Tolerating with poor control’; ‘Adrift and poorly controlled’; ‘Worried with multiple symptoms’). We developed consensus recommendations for tailoring management of these attitudinal-control clusters. An expert panel undertook a three-round electronic Delphi (e-Delphi): Round 1: panellists received descriptions of the attitudinal-control clusters and provided free text recommendations for their assessment and management. Round 2: panellists prioritised Round 1 recommendations and met (or joined a teleconference) to consolidate the recommendations. Round 3: panellists voted and prioritised the remaining recommendations. Consensus was defined as Round 3 recommendations endorsed by >50% of panellists. Highest priority recommendations were those receiving the highest score. The multidisciplinary panellists (9 clinicians, 1 pharmacist and 1 health social scientist; 7 from Asia) identified consensus recommendations for all clusters. Recommended pharmacological (e.g., step-up/down; self-management; simplified regimen) and non-pharmacological approaches (e.g., trigger management, education, social support; inhaler technique) varied substantially according to each cluster’s attitude to asthma and associated psychosocial drivers of behaviour. The attitudinal-control clusters defined by REALISE Asia resonated with the international panel. Consensus was reached on appropriate tailored management approaches for all clusters. Summarised and incorporated into a structured management pathway, these recommendations could facilitate personalised care. Generalisability of these patient clusters should be assessed in other socio-economic, cultural and literacy groups and nationalities in Asia.

Concepts: Asthma, Sociology, Control, Tailor, Denial


Tailoring is a frequent component of approaches for implementing clinical practice guidelines, although evidence on how to maximise the effectiveness of tailoring is limited. In England, overweight and obesity are common, and national guidelines have been produced by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. However, the guidelines are not routinely followed in primary care.

Concepts: Health care, Clinical trial, Medical ethics, Nutrition, Randomized controlled trial, Tailor


What is the next frontier for computer-tailored health communication (CTHC) research? In current CTHC systems, study designers who have expertise in behavioral theory and mapping theory into CTHC systems select the variables and develop the rules that specify how the content should be tailored, based on their knowledge of the targeted population, the literature, and health behavior theories. In collective-intelligence recommender systems (hereafter recommender systems) used by Web 2.0 companies (eg, Netflix and Amazon), machine learning algorithms combine user profiles and continuous feedback ratings of content (from themselves and other users) to empirically tailor content. Augmenting current theory-based CTHC with empirical recommender systems could be evaluated as the next frontier for CTHC.

Concepts: Scientific method, Algorithm, Science, Empiricism, Machine learning, Learning, 21st century, Tailor


Multimorbid patients receiving polypharmacy represent a growing population at high risk for negative health outcomes. Tailoring is an approach of systematic intervention development taking account of previously identified determinants of practice. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a tailored program to improve the implementation of three important processes of care for this patient group: (a) structured medication counseling including brown bag reviews, (b) the use of medication lists, and © structured medication reviews to reduce potentially inappropriate medication.

Concepts: Health care, Health care provider, Pharmacology, Patient, Randomized controlled trial, Illness, Tailor


Individuals often receive judgements from others based on their clothing and their posture. While both of these factors have been found to influence judgements of competency independently, their relative importance in impression formation is yet to be investigated. We address this by examining interactive effects of posture and clothing on four competency measures: confidence, professionalism, approachability, and likeliness of a high salary. Participants rated photographs of both male and female models pictured in different postures (strong, neutral, weak) in smart clothing (a suit for males; both a trouser suit and skirt suit for females) and casual clothing. We confirm that posture manipulations affected judgements of individuals differently according to the clothing they were pictured in. The nature of these interactions varied by gender and, for women, competency judgements differed according to attire type (trouser or skirt suit). The implications of these findings in relation to impression formation are discussed.

Concepts: Male, Female, Gender, Sex, Woman, Trousers, Tailor, Clothing


Background Providing verbal medicines information to patients may be insufficient. Providing medicine information leaflets could support verbal information, however New Zealand health professionals' opinions or use of leaflets is unknown. Objective To examine self-reported provision and health professionals' views about medicine information leaflets and to determine their support for tailoring patient leaflets. Setting A cross sectional survey of general practitioners (GPs) and community pharmacists in New Zealand primary care. Method GPs and pharmacists completed validated questionnaires. Data was collected using SurveyMonkey® and where applicable, Chi squared analysis was carried out. Main outcome measures Frequency of leaflet provision, how leaflets are used in practice and why, likes and dislikes of available leaflets, and opinions on providing tailored information. Results 143 GPs and 126 pharmacists responded. For new medicines, significantly more pharmacists than GPs reported providing leaflets all or most of the time. For repeat medicines, leaflets were more likely to be given only on request. Leaflets were given to ensure patients are well-informed. Most GPs and pharmacists report discussing sections of leaflets with patients. The likes and dislikes of leaflets were mostly about design and content. Both professions support tailoring leaflets to meet individual’s requirements. Conclusions Provision of medicines information needs to be re-evaluated. Relying on verbal communication is inadequate and leaflet provision appears to be suboptimal. Making leaflets more patient-centred and accessible could improve health professionals' perceptions and use of them. Automated creation and provision of tailored summary leaflets would be beneficial. Further advantage could be gained by digital patient access.

Concepts: Medicine, Patient, Physician, Doctor-patient relationship, General practitioner, Pharmacy, Tailor, Leaflet


Endoluminal functional lumen imaging probe (EndoFLIP) can provide real time information about characteristics of the gastroesophageal junction. We performed retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on use of EndoFLIP during minimally invasive hiatal hernia repair to tailor the size of the crural closure and size of the fundoplication. We then determined whether it provides good reflux control without significant dysphagia. Forty patients underwent minimally invasive hiatal hernia repair with fundoplication. After fundoplication, the average minimal diameter (Dmin) decreased to 5.97±0.6 from 8.92±1.93 mm, and distensibility index decreased to 1.26±0.38 from 2.88±1.55 mm/mm Hg (P<0.0001). After 1 month, none of the patients had reflux or significant dysphagia. EndoFLIP can be used to tailor fundoplication with good functional outcome. Further studies are needed to understand the long-term consequences of tailored fundoplication.

Concepts: Surgery, Gastroenterology, Minimally invasive, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Hernias, Achalasia, Tailor, Clothing


The development of new technologies and ensuing pedagogical research has led many tertiary institutions to integrate and adopt online learning strategies. The authors of this study have incorporated online learning strategies into existing educational practices of a second year anatomy course, resulting in half of the course content delivered via face-to-face lectures, and half delivered online via tailored video vignettes, with accompanying worksheets and activities. The effect of the content delivery mode on student learning was analyzed by tailoring questions to content presented either face-to-face or online. Four practical tests were conducted across the semester with each consisting of four questions. Within each test, two questions were based on content delivered face-to-face, and two questions were based on content delivered online. Examination multiple choice questions were similarly divided and assessed. Findings indicate that student learning is consistent regardless of the mode of content delivery. However, student viewing habits had a significant impact on learning, with students who viewed videos multiple times achieving higher marks than those less engaged with the online content. Student comments also indicated that content delivery mode was not an influence on learning. Therefore student engagement, rather than the mode of content delivery, is a determinant of student learning and performance in human anatomy. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.

Concepts: Education, Assessment, Educational psychology, Human anatomy, Higher education, Multiple choice, Engagement, Tailor