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Concept: T helper cell


Graft-versus-host disease is one of the major transplant-related complications in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Continued efforts have been made to prevent the occurrence of severe graft-versus-host disease by eliminating or suppressing donor-derived effector T cells. Conventional immunosuppression does not adequately prevent graft-versus-host disease, especially in mismatched transplants. Unfortunately, elimination of donor-derived T cells impairs stem cell engraftment, and delays immunologic reconstitution, rendering the recipient susceptible to post-transplant infections and disease relapse, with potentially lethal consequences. In this review, we discuss the role of dynamic immune regulation in controlling graft-versus-host disease, and how cell-based therapies are being developed using regulatory T cells and other tolerogenic cells for the prevention and treatment of graft-versus-host disease. In addition, advances in the design of cytoreductive conditioning regimens to selectively target graft-versus-host disease-inducing donor-derived T cells that have improved the safety of allogeneic stem cell transplantation are reviewed. Finally, we discuss advances in our understanding of the tolerogenic facilitating cell population, a phenotypically and functionally distinct population of bone marrow-derived cells which promote hematopoietic stem cell engraftment while reducing the risk of graft-versus-host disease.

Concepts: Immune system, Immunology, Graft-versus-host disease, T helper cell, T cells, Organ transplant, Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, Hematopoietic stem cell


To isolate and characterize indigenous algicidal bacteria and their algae-lysing compounds active against Microcystis aeruginosa, strains TH1, TH2, and FACHB 905.

Concepts: Immune system, Bacteria, Fungus, T helper cell, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacterial cell structure, Vermilion, Carmine


Macrophage polarization is increasingly recognised as an important pathogenetic factor in inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. Proinflammatory M1 macrophages promote T helper (Th) 1 responses and show tumoricidal activity. M2 macrophages contribute to tissue repair and promote Th2 responses. CD68 and CD163 are used to identify macrophages in tissue sections. However, characterisation of polarised macrophages in situ has remained difficult. Macrophage polarisation is regulated by transcription factors, pSTAT1 and RBP-J for M1, and CMAF for M2. We reasoned that double-labelling immunohistochemistry for the detection of macrophage markers together with transcription factors may be suitable to characterise macrophage polarisation in situ. To test this hypothesis, we have studied conditions associated with Th1- and Th2-predominant immune responses: infectious mononucleosis and Crohn’s disease for Th1 and allergic nasal polyps, oxyuriasis, wound healing and foreign body granulomas for predominant Th2 response. In all situations, CD163+ cells usually outnumbered CD68+ cells. Moreover, CD163+ cells, usually considered as M2 macrophages, co-expressing pSTAT1 and RBP-J were found in all conditions examined. The numbers of putative M1 macrophages were higher in Th1- than in Th2-associated diseases, while more M2 macrophages were seen in Th2- than in Th1 related disorders. In most Th1-related diseases, the balance of M1 over M2 cells was shifted towards M1 cells, while the reverse was observed for Th2-related conditions. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed two distinct clusters: cluster I included Th1 diseases together with cases with high numbers of CD163+pSTAT1+, CD68+pSTAT1+, CD163+RBP-J+ and CD68+RBP-J+ macrophages; cluster II comprised Th2 conditions together with cases displaying high numbers of CD163+CMAF+ and CD68+CMAF+ macrophages. These results suggest that the detection of pSTAT1, RBP-J, and CMAF in the context of CD68 or CD163 expression is a suitable tool for the characterisation of macrophage polarisation in situ. Furthermore, CD163 cannot be considered a reliable M2 marker when used on its own.

Concepts: AIDS, Immune system, White blood cell, Asthma, Macrophage, Apoptosis, Allergy, T helper cell


Smoking is a common addiction and a leading cause of disease. Chronic nicotine exposure is known to activate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in immune cells. We demonstrate a novel role for α4 nAChRs in the effect of nicotine on T-cell proliferation and immunity. Using cell based sorting and proteomic analysis we define an α4 nAChR expressing helper T-cell population (α4+CD3+CD4+) and show that this group of cells is responsive to sustained nicotine exposure. In circulation, spleen, and thymus we find that nicotine promotes an increase in CD3+CD4+ cells via its activation of the α4 nAChR and regulation of Gαo, Gprin1, and CDC42 signaling within T-cells. In particular, nicotine is found to promote a Th2, adaptive, immunological response within T-cells, which was absent in α4-/- mice. We thus present a new mechanism of α4 nAChR signaling and immune regulation in T-cells, possibly accounting for the effect of smoking on the immune system.

Concepts: Immune system, White blood cell, Immunology, T helper cell, Nicotine, Cell signaling, Acetylcholine, Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor


We previously developed novel liposomal nanobubbles (Bubble liposomes; BLs) that oscillate and collapse in an ultrasound field, generating heat and shock waves. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of cancer therapy by the combination of BLs and ultrasound (BLs + ultrasound). In addition, we investigated the anti-tumor mechanism of this cancer therapy. Colon-26 cells were inoculated into the flank of BALB/c mice to induce tumors. After 8 days, BLs or saline was intratumorally injected, followed by transdermal ultrasound exposure of tumor tissue (1 MHz, 0-4 W/cm(2) , 2 min). The anti-tumor effects were evaluated by histology (necrosis) and tumor growth. In vivo cell depletion assays were performed to identify the immune cells responsible for anti-tumor effects. Tumor temperatures were significantly higher when treated with BLs + ultrasound than ultrasound alone. Intratumoral BLs caused extensive tissue necrosis at 3-4 W/cm(2) of ultrasound exposure. In addition, BLs + ultrasound significantly suppressed tumor growth at 2-4 W/cm(2) . In vivo depletion of CD8(+) T cells (not NK or CD4(+) T cells) completely blocked the effect of BLs + ultrasound on tumor growth. These data suggest that CD8(+) T cells play a critical role in tumor growth suppression. Finally, we concluded that BLs + ultrasound which can prime the anti-tumor cellular immune system may be an effective hyperthermia strategy for cancer treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Immune system, White blood cell, Antibody, Cancer, Apoptosis, Immunology, T helper cell, Humoral immunity


In the last decade, the full picture of the role of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) has been gradually revealed. ILCs are classified into 3 groups based on their transcription factors and cytokine production patterns, which mirror helper T-cell subsets. Unlike T cells and B cells, ILCs do not have antigen receptors. They promptly respond to multiple tissue-derived factors, such as cytokines and alarmins, and produce multiple proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines. It has been reported that ILC-derived cytokines are important for the induction and regulation of inflammation. Accumulating evidence suggests that ILCs play substantial roles in protection against infection and the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, such as allergic diseases and autoimmune diseases. Different ILC subsets localize in distinct tissue/organ niches and receive tissue-derived signals on different types of inflammation, which allows them to acquire diverse phenotypes with specialized effector capacities. In this review we highlight the roles of ILCs in a variety of organs, such as the airway, skin, and gastrointestinal tract, in the context of allergic and nonallergic inflammation.

Concepts: Immune system, Inflammation, White blood cell, Interleukin 1, Asthma, Infection, T helper cell, Interleukin


The aim was to describe the regulatory B and T cells (Breg and Treg) and T helper 17 (Th17) lymphocytes before and under treatment with biologic drugs, and to assess their potential predictive value as biomarkers of response in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Concepts: White blood cell, B cell, Rheumatoid arthritis, Rheumatology, T helper cell, T cells, Thymus, Human cells


The objective of this study was to identify the key changed subtype of T helper cells (Th cells) and their cytokines in pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) in rats. The severity of arthritis was evaluated by body weight, clinical score, the perimeter of ankle and mid-paw and histological assessment of ankle joints. Cytokines of Th1, Th2 and Th17 were determined in the spleen and inguinal lymph nodes at 28 days after pristane injection by real-time qPCR. The mRNA levels of IL-22 receptors, IL-22R1 and IL-22BP, in the spleen were quantified by real-time qPCR. Additionally, IL-22 expression in synovial membrane was detected by Western blotting, and serum IL-22 concentration was determined by ELISA. Correlation between IL-22 concentration and clinical score was analyzed. By screening the cytokines of Th1, Th2 and Th17 expression profile, we found that the mRNA levels of Th17 cytokines were significantly increased in PIA rats. Particularly, a significant increase in the protein expression of IL-22 was determined in synovial membrane and serum from PIA rats, and correlated with clinical score. We conclude that IL-22 expression level was increased and correlated with disease severity, which indicated that IL-22 may play an important role in development of PIA, and was helpful to explorer the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.

Concepts: AIDS, Immune system, Antibody, Cancer, Apoptosis, Rheumatoid arthritis, T helper cell, Interleukin 10


Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-cells have emerged as a powerful immunotherapy for various forms of cancer and show promise in treating HIV-1 infection. However, significant limitations are persistence and whether peripheral T cell-based products can respond to malignant or infected cells that may reappear months or years after treatment remains unclear. Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells (HSPCs) are capable of long-term engraftment and have the potential to overcome these limitations. Here, we report the use of a protective CD4 chimeric antigen receptor (C46CD4CAR) to redirect HSPC-derived T-cells against simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection in pigtail macaques. CAR-containing cells persisted for more than 2 years without any measurable toxicity and were capable of multilineage engraftment. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) treatment followed by cART withdrawal resulted in lower viral rebound in CAR animals relative to controls, and demonstrated an immune memory-like response. We found CAR-expressing cells in multiple lymphoid tissues, decreased tissue-associated SHIV RNA levels, and substantially higher CD4/CD8 ratios in the gut as compared to controls. These results show that HSPC-derived CAR T-cells are capable of long-term engraftment and immune surveillance. This study demonstrates for the first time the safety and feasibility of HSPC-based CAR therapy in a large animal preclinical model.

Concepts: Antiretroviral drug, HIV, AIDS, Immune system, Protein, T helper cell, Lymphatic system, Thymus


Background The unprecedented 2014 epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) has prompted an international response to accelerate the availability of a preventive vaccine. A replication-defective recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus type 3-vectored ebolavirus vaccine (cAd3-EBO), encoding the glycoprotein from Zaire and Sudan species that offers protection in the nonhuman primate model, was rapidly advanced into phase 1 clinical evaluation. Methods We conducted a phase 1, dose-escalation, open-label trial of cAd3-EBO. Twenty healthy adults, in sequentially enrolled groups of 10 each, received vaccination intramuscularly in doses of 2×10(10) particle units or 2×10(11) particle units. Primary and secondary end points related to safety and immunogenicity were assessed throughout the first 4 weeks after vaccination. Results In this small study, no safety concerns were identified; however, transient fever developed within 1 day after vaccination in two participants who had received the 2×10(11) particle-unit dose. Glycoprotein-specific antibodies were induced in all 20 participants; the titers were of greater magnitude in the group that received the 2×10(11) particle-unit dose than in the group that received the 2×10(10) particle-unit dose (geometric mean titer against the Zaire antigen, 2037 vs. 331; P=0.001). Glycoprotein-specific T-cell responses were more frequent among those who received the 2x10(11) particle-unit dose than among those who received the 2×10(10) particle-unit dose, with a CD4 response in 10 of 10 participants versus 3 of 10 participants (P=0.004) and a CD8 response in 7 of 10 participants versus 2 of 10 participants (P=0.07). Conclusions Reactogenicity and immune responses to cAd3-EBO vaccine were dose-dependent. At the 2×10(11) particle-unit dose, glycoprotein Zaire-specific antibody responses were in the range reported to be associated with vaccine-induced protective immunity in challenge studies involving nonhuman primates. Clinical trials assessing cAd3-EBO are ongoing. (Funded by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health; VRC 207 number, NCT02231866 .).

Concepts: Immune system, Antibody, Vaccination, Immunology, T helper cell, Immunity, Ebola, Western Red Colobus