Concept: Systemic disease
Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) is unique among the rheumatic diseases because it presents the challenge of managing a chronic multisystem autoimmune disease with a widespread obliterative vasculopathy of small arteries that is associated with varying degrees of tissue fibrosis. The hallmark of scleroderma is clinical heterogeneity with subsets that vary in the degree of disease expression, organ involvement, and ultimate prognosis. Thus, the term scleroderma is used to describe patients who have common manifestations that link them together, whereas a highly variable clinical course exists that spans from mild and subtle findings to aggressive, life-threatening multisystem disease. The physician needs to carefully characterize each patient to understand the specific manifestations and level of disease activity to decide appropriate treatment. This is particularly important in treating a patient with scleroderma because there is no treatment that has been proven to modify the overall disease course, although therapy that targets specific organ involvement early before irreversible damage occurs improves both quality of life and survival. This review describes our approach as defined by evidence, expert opinion, and our experience treating patients. Scleroderma is a multisystem disease with variable expression; thus, any treatment plan must be holistic, yet at the same time focus on the dominant organ disease. The goal of therapy is to improve quality of life by minimizing specific organ involvement and subsequent life-threatening disease. At the same time the many factors that alter daily function need to be addressed, including nutrition, pain, deconditioning, musculoskeletal disuse, comorbid conditions, and the emotional aspects of the disease, such as fear, depression, and the social withdrawal caused by disfigurement.
Fluoroquinolones (FQ) are the recommended antimicrobial treatment for typhoid, a severe systemic infection caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. FQ-resistance mutations in S. Typhi have become common, hindering treatment and control efforts. Using in vitro competition experiments, we assayed the fitness of eleven isogenic S. Typhi strains with resistance mutations in the FQ target genes, gyrA and parC. In the absence of antimicrobial pressure, 6 out of 11 mutants carried a selective advantage over the antimicrobial-sensitive parent strain, indicating that FQ resistance in S. Typhi is not typically associated with fitness costs. Double-mutants exhibited higher than expected fitness as a result of synergistic epistasis, signifying that epistasis may be a critical factor in the evolution and molecular epidemiology of S. Typhi. Our findings have important implications for the management of drug-resistant S. Typhi, suggesting that FQ-resistant strains would be naturally maintained even if fluoroquinolone use were reduced. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01229.001.
Moderate to severe psoriasis, once regarded as merely a skin disease, is today seen as an inflammatory systemic disease. The sex ratio of the prevalence of psoriasis is balanced. In recent years several reports have documented that men receive more systemic or UV treatment than women, and different hypotheses were made. In PsoReg, the national registry for systemic treatment of psoriasis in Sweden, we have, like other European registries, observed a predominance of men (59%), especially of men treated with biologics (63%). Biologics are a relatively new group of very effective but high-priced drugs. The objective of this study was to analyse if women are discriminated by not having the same access to the high-priced biologics.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether an association exists between common systemic diseases, sociodemographic factors, and keratoconus (KCN) among a large, diverse group of insured individuals in the United States.
In recent years, a growing amount of research has begun to focus on the oral microbiome due to its links with health and systemic disease. The oral microbiome has numerous advantages that make it particularly useful for clinical studies, including non-invasive collection, temporal stability, and lower complexity relative to other niches, such as the gut. Despite recent discoveries made in this area, it is unknown how the oral microbiome responds to short-term hospitalization. Previous studies have demonstrated that the gut microbiome is extremely sensitive to short-term hospitalization and that these changes are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Here, we present a comprehensive pipeline for reliable bedside collection, sequencing, and analysis of the human salivary microbiome. We also develop a novel oral-specific mock community for pipeline validation. Using our methodology, we analyzed the salivary microbiomes of patients before and during hospitalization or azithromycin treatment to profile impacts on this community. Our findings indicate that azithromycin alters the diversity and taxonomic composition of the salivary microbiome; however, we also found that short-term hospitalization does not impact the richness or structure of this community, suggesting that the oral cavity may be less susceptible to dysbiosis during short-term hospitalization.
In this Point-of-view article we highlighted some features related to saliva and virus infection, in special for zika virus. In addition, we pointed out the potential oral problems caused by a microcephaly originated by a zika virus infection. In the end the, we demonstrated the importance of a more comprehensive exploration of saliva and their components as a fluid for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches on oral and systemic diseases.
To reach a European consensus on the definition and characterization of the main organ-specific extraglandular manifestations in primary SS.
The funduscopic examination is important in the detection of certain systemic diseases and diseases that primarily affect the eye. This video demonstrates direct ophthalmoscopy, a technique that is widely used for examination of the retina.
Atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome is a genetic, life-threatening, chronic disease of complement-mediated thrombotic microangiopathy. Plasma exchange or infusion may transiently maintain normal levels of hematologic measures but does not treat the underlying systemic disease.
Stress is a common occurrence in everyday life and repeated or traumatic stress can be a precipitating factor for illnesses of the central nervous system, as well as peripheral organ systems. For example, severe or long-term psychological stress can not only induce depression, a leading illness worldwide, but can also cause psychosomatic diseases such as asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. Related key questions include how psychological stress influences both brain and peripheral systems, and what detection mechanisms underlie these effects? A clue is provided by the discovery of the pathways underlying the responses to host “danger” substances that cause systemic diseases, but can also contribute to depression. The inflammasome is a protein complex that can detect diverse danger signals and produce the accompanying immune-inflammatory reactions. Interestingly, the inflammasome can detect not only pathogen-associated molecules, but also cell damage-associated molecules such as ATP. Here, we propose a new inflammasome hypothesis of depression and related comorbid systemic illnesses. According to this hypothesis, the inflammasome is a central mediator by which psychological and physical stressors can contribute to the development of depression, and as well as a bridge to systemic diseases. This hypothesis includes an explanation for how psychological stress can influence systemic diseases, and conversely how systemic diseases can lead to psychiatric illnesses. The evidence suggests that the inflammasome may be a new target for the development of treatments for depression, as well as psychosomatic and somato-psycho diseases.