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Concept: Systema Naturae


It is sometimes necessary for nonhuman primates to be restrained during biomedical and psychosocial research. Such restraint is often accomplished using a “primate chair.” This article details a method for training adult rhesus macaques to cooperate with a chair restraint procedure using positive and negative reinforcement. Successful training was accomplished rapidly in approximately 14 training days. The success of this training technique suggests that this method represents a refinement to traditional techniques. Further, this method worked effectively for animals previously deemed unfit for traditional pole-and-collar training.

Concepts: Mammal, Macaque, Primate, Rhesus Macaque, Old World monkey, Barbary Macaque, Cercopithecinae, Systema Naturae


Studying animal cognition in a social setting is associated with practical and statistical challenges. However, conducting cognitive research without disturbing species-typical social groups can increase ecological validity, minimize distress, and improve animal welfare. Here, we review the existing literature on cognitive research run with primates in a social setting in order to determine how widespread such testing is and highlight approaches that may guide future research planning.

Concepts: Cognitive psychology, Cognition, Fiction, Mammal, Mind, Primate, Primatology, Systema Naturae


The British Museum, based in Montague House, Bloomsbury, opened its doors on 15 January 1759, as the world’s first state-owned public museum. The Museum’s collection mostly originated from Sir Hans Sloane (1660-1753), whose vast holdings were purchased by Parliament shortly after his death. The largest component of this collection was objects of natural history, including a herbarium made up of 265 bound volumes, many of which were classified according to the late seventeenth-century system of John Ray (1627-1705). The 1750s saw the emergence of Linnaean binomial nomenclature, following the publication of Carl Linnaeus' Species Plantarum (1753) and Systema Naturae (1758). In order to adopt this new system for their collections, the Trustees of the British Museum chose to employ the Swedish naturalist and former student of Linnaeus, Daniel Solander (1733-1782) to reclassify the collection. Solander was ordered to devise a new system for classifying and cataloguing Sloane’s natural history collection, which would allow both Linnaeans and those who followed earlier systems to access it. Solander’s work was essential for allowing the British Museum to realize its aim of becoming a public centre of learning, adapting the collection to reflect the diversity of classificatory practices which were existent by the 1760s. This task engaged Solander until 1768, when he received an offer from Joseph Banks (1743-1820) to accompany him on HMS Endeavour to the Pacific.

Concepts: Natural history, Museum, Royal Society, Carl Linnaeus, Systema Naturae, British Museum, Hans Sloane, Natural History Museum


Epidermal grafting using cells derived from pluripotent stem cells will change the face of this side of regenerative cutaneous medicine. To date, the safety of the graft would be the major unmet deal in order to implement long-term skin grafting. In this context, experiments on large animals appear unavoidable to assess this question and possible rejection. Cellular tools for large animal models should be constructed.

Concepts: Developmental biology, Stem cell, Cell biology, Animal, Organ, Mammal, Pluripotency, Systema Naturae


Proper understanding of the mechanism(s) by which α-synuclein misfolds and propagates may hold the key to unraveling the complex pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease. A more complete understanding of the disease itself, as well as establishing animal models that fully recapitulate pathological and functional disease progression, are needed to develop treatments that will delay, halt or reverse the disease course. Traditional neurotoxin-based animal models fail to mimic crucial aspects of Parkinson’s and thus are not relevant for the study of neuroprotection and disease-modifying therapies. Therefore, a new era of animal models centered on α-synuclein has emerged with the utility of nonhuman primates in these studies beginning to become important. Indeed, disease modeling in nonhuman primates offers a more similar anatomical and genetic background to humans, and the ability to assess complex behavioral impairments that are difficult to test in rodents. Furthermore, results obtained from monkey studies translate better to applications in humans. In this review, we highlight the importance of α-synuclein in Parkinson’s disease and discuss the development of α-synuclein based nonhuman primate models.

Concepts: Human, Insect, Mammal, Primate, Rodent, Monkey, Simian, Systema Naturae


Many nonhuman primates live in proximity to humans, and all studied primate populations are influenced in some ways by human interaction. While the effects of human interference on primate behavior and ecology are an important area of research in contemporary primatology, to date there is no systematic way to report the types or level of anthropogenic influence for a primate study population. In this paper, I introduce a diagnostic classification system that will allow primate field researchers to clearly and consistently report anthropogenic conditions at their study sites. This system provides a way to identify population conditions for four major variables: landscape, human-nonhuman primate interface, diet, and predation risk. The incredible diversity of the Order Primates necessitates a descriptive system that is applicable across a wide range of habitat types, social groupings, and ecological roles, so the proposed classification system has been specifically designed to avoid quantitative ranking. Instead, the system is intended to provide a standardized way to report a wealth of population and site information in a simple format. This will allow for meta-analysis of specific conditions across study sites, leading to a greater understanding of the effects of different forms of anthropogenic influence on primate behavior and ecology. Am. J. Primatol. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Concepts: Human, Biology, Predation, Ecology, Sociology, Mammal, Primate, Systema Naturae


Extragonadal teratomas have not been reported in nonhuman primates. A female cynomolgus monkey, a vehicle control in an exploratory toxicity study, was necropsied. Microscopic examination of an extragonadal mass in the animal’s craniodorsal retroperitoneum revealed a teratoma. This is the first report of an extragonadal teratoma in a nonhuman primate.

Concepts: Mammal, Macaque, Primate, Ape, Monkeys in space, Monkey, Simian, Systema Naturae


To date, experimental and preclinical studies on neuropsychiatric conditions have almost exclusively been performed in experimentally-induced animal models and have only rarely relied upon an ethological approach where animals have been observed in more naturalistic settings. The laboratory species of choice has been the rodent while the potential of more closely-related non-human primates have remained largely underexplored.

Concepts: Human, Mammal, Primate, Rhesus Macaque, Mental disorder, Strepsirrhini, Simian, Systema Naturae