Bacterial phototaxis was first recognized over a century ago, but the method by which such small cells can sense the direction of illumination has remained puzzling. The unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 moves with Type IV pili and measures light intensity and color with a range of photoreceptors. Here, we show that individual Synechocystis cells do not respond to a spatiotemporal gradient in light intensity, but rather they directly and accurately sense the position of a light source. We show that directional light sensing is possible because Synechocystis cells act as spherical microlenses, allowing the cell to see a light source and move towards it. A high-resolution image of the light source is focused on the edge of the cell opposite to the source, triggering movement away from the focused spot. Spherical cyanobacteria are probably the world’s smallest and oldest example of a camera eye.
Abstract In the present economy, difficulties to access energy sources are real drawbacks to maintain our current lifestyle. In fact, increasing interests have been gathered around efficient strategies to use energy sources that do not generate high CO2 titers. Thus, science-funding agencies have invested more resources into research on hydrogen among other biofuels as interesting energy vectors. This article reviews present energy challenges and frames it into the present fuel usage landscape. Different strategies for hydrogen production are explained and evaluated. Focus is on biological hydrogen production; fermentation and photon-fuelled hydrogen production are compared. Mathematical models in biology can be used to assess, explore and design production strategies for industrially relevant metabolites, such as biofuels. We assess the diverse construction and uses of genome-scale metabolic models of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 to efficiently obtain biofuels. This organism has been studied as a potential photon-fuelled production platform for its ability to grow from carbon dioxide, water and photons, on simple culture media. Finally, we review studies that propose production strategies to weigh this organism’s viability as a biofuel production platform. Overall, the work presented in this review unveils the industrial capabilities of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 to evolve interesting metabolites as a clean biofuel production platform.
Environmental cues can stimulate a variety of single-cell responses, as well as collective behaviors that emerge within a bacterial community. These responses require signal integration and transduction, which can occur on a variety of time scales and often involve feedback between processes, for example, between growth and motility. Here, we investigate the dynamics of responses of the phototactic, unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 to complex light inputs that simulate the natural environments that cells typically encounter. We quantified single-cell motility characteristics in response to light of different wavelengths and intensities. We found that red and green light primarily affected motility bias rather than speed, while blue light inhibited motility altogether. When light signals were simultaneously presented from different directions, cells exhibited phototaxis along the vector sum of the light directions, indicating that cells can sense and combine multiple signals into an integrated motility response. Under a combination of antagonistic light signal regimes (phototaxis-promoting green light and phototaxis-inhibiting blue light), the ensuing bias was continuously tuned by competition between the wavelengths, and the community response was dependent on both bias and cell growth. The phototactic dynamics upon a rapid light shift revealed a wavelength dependence on the time scales of photoreceptor activation/deactivation. Thus, Synechocystis cells achieve exquisite integration of light inputs at the cellular scale through continuous tuning of motility, and the pattern of collective behavior depends on single-cell motility and population growth.IMPORTANCE The photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. exhibits phototaxis that is dependent on the incident light wavelength through the action of various photoreceptors. In natural environments, cells experience a set of highly dynamic and complex light inputs, yet how cells transduce multiple or dynamic inputs into motion is unknown. In this study, we measured the phototactic behaviors of single cells and communities as a function of light intensity or when illuminated by combinations of lights of different wavelengths or incidence directions. Responses to a spectrum of light regimes revealed that Synechocystis sp. integrates information about the light environment to tune its phototactic response, which is likely generated by competition among photoreceptors and the degree of wavelength-regulated growth to sensitively control the direction and degree of movement.
BACKGROUND: The transcriptomes of several cyanobacterial strains have been shown to exhibit diurnal oscillation patterns, reflecting the diurnal phototrophic lifestyle of the organisms.The analysis of such genome-wide transcriptional oscillations is often facilitated by the use of clustering algorithms in conjunction with a number of pre-processing steps. Biological interpretation is usually focussed on the time and phase of expression of the resulting groups of genes.However, the use of microarray technology in such studies requires the normalization of pre-processing data, with unclear impact on the qualitative and quantitative features of the derived information on the number of oscillating transcripts and their respective phases. RESULTS: A microarray based evaluation of diurnal expression in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is presented. As expected, the temporal expression patterns reveal strong oscillations in transcript abundance.We compare the Fourier transformation-based expression phase before and after the application of quantile normalization, median polishing, cyclical LOESS, and least oscillating set (LOS) normalization.Whereas LOS normalization mostly preserves the phases of the raw data, the remaining methods introduce systematic biases. In particular, quantile-normalization is found to introduce a phase-shift of 180°, effectively changing night-expressed genes into day-expressed ones. Comparison of a large number of clustering results of differently normalized data shows that the normalization method determines the result. Subsequent steps, such as the choice of data transformation, similarity measure, and clustering algorithm, only play minor roles.We find that the standardization and the DTF transformation are favorable for the clustering of time series in contrast to the 12m transformation. We use the cluster-wise functional enrichment of a clustering derived by LOS normalization, clustering using flowClust, and DFT transformation to derive the diurnal biological program of Synechocystis sp.. CONCLUSION: Application of quantile normalization, median polishing, and also cyclic LOESS normalization of the presented cyanobacterial dataset lead to increased numbers of oscillating genes and the systematic shift of the expression phase. The LOS normalization minimizes the observed detrimental effects. As previous analyses employed a variety of different normalization methods, a direct comparison of results must be treated with caution.
Specialized RNA endonucleases for the maturation of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-derived RNAs (crRNAs) are critical in CRISPR-CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) defence mechanisms. The Cas6 and Cas5d enzymes are the RNA endonucleases in many class 1 CRISPR-Cas systems. In some class 2 systems, maturation and effector functions are combined within a single enzyme or maturation proceeds through the combined actions of RNase III and trans-activating CRISPR RNAs (tracrRNAs). Three separate CRISPR-Cas systems exist in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Whereas Cas6-type enzymes act in two of these systems, the third, which is classified as subtype III-B variant (III-Bv), lacks cas6 homologues. Instead, the maturation of crRNAs proceeds through the activity of endoribonuclease E, leaving unusual 13- and 14-nucleotide-long 5'-handles. Overexpression of RNase E leads to overaccumulation and knock-down to the reduced accumulation of crRNAs in vivo, suggesting that RNase E is the limiting factor for CRISPR complex formation. Recognition by RNase E depends on a stem-loop in the CRISPR repeat, whereas base substitutions at the cleavage site trigger the appearance of secondary products, consistent with a two-step recognition and cleavage mechanism. These results suggest the adaptation of an otherwise very conserved housekeeping enzyme to accommodate new substrates and illuminate the impressive plasticity of CRISPR-Cas systems that enables them to function in particular genomic environments.
Cyclic triterpenes constitute one of the most diverse groups of plant natural products. Besides the intriguing biochemistry of their biosynthetic pathways, plant triterpenes exhibit versatile bioactivities, including antimicrobial effects against plant and human pathogens. While prokaryotes have been extensively used for the heterologous production of other classes of terpenes, the synthesis of cyclic triterpenes, which inherently includes the two-step catalytic formation of the universal linear precursor 2,3-oxidosqualene, is still a major challenge. We thus explored the suitability of the metabolically versatile photosynthetic α-proteobacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003 and cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 as alternative hosts for biosynthesis of cyclic plant triterpenes. Therefore, 2,3-oxidosqualene production was implemented and subsequently combined with different cyclization reactions catalyzed by the representative oxidosqualene cyclases CAS1 (cycloartenol synthase), LUP1 (lupeol synthase), THAS1 (thalianol synthase) and MRN1 (marneral synthase) derived from model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. While successful accumulation of 2,3-oxidosqualene could be detected by LC-MS analysis in both hosts, cyclase expression resulted in differential production profiles. CAS1 catalyzed conversion to only cycloartenol, but expression of LUP1 yielded lupeol and a triterpenoid matching an oxidation product of lupeol, in both hosts. In contrast, THAS1 expression did not lead to cyclic product formation in either host, whereas MRN1-dependent production of marnerol and hydroxymarnerol was observed in Synechocystis but not in R. capsulatus. Our findings thus indicate that 2,3-oxidosqualene cyclization in heterologous phototrophic bacteria is basically feasible but efficient conversion depends on both the respective cyclase enzyme and individual host properties. Therefore, photosynthetic α-proteo- and cyanobacteria are promising alternative candidates for providing new bacterial access to the broad class of triterpenes for biotechnological applications.
Photosynthetic bacteria are capable of producing their own food via photosynthesis. Unsurprisingly, they evolved the ability to move toward better light conditions (i.e., phototaxis). In a recent article in mBio, Chau et al. tuned the wavelength, flux, direction, and timing of light input and characterized the motility of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803 (R. M. W. Chau, D. Bhaya, and K. C. Huang, mBio 8:e02330-16, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02330-16). The results revealed an intricate dependence of the motility on various light inputs, laying the fundamental groundwork toward understanding phototaxis under complex and dynamic light environments.
Increasing photosynthetic efficiency is crucial to increasing biomass production to meet the growing demands for food and energy. Previous theoretical arithmetic analysis suggests that the light reactions and dark reactions are imperfectly coupled due to shortage of ATP supply, or accumulation of NADPH. Here we hypothesized that solely increasing NADPH consumption might improve the coupling of light reactions and dark reactions, thereby increasing the photosynthetic efficiency and biomass production. To test this hypothesis, an NADPH consumption pathway was constructed in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The resulting extra NADPH-consuming mutant grew much faster and achieved a higher biomass concentration. Analyses of photosynthesis characteristics showed the activities of photosystem II and photosystem I and the light saturation point of the NADPH-consuming mutant all significantly increased. Thus, we demonstrated that introducing extra NADPH consumption ability is a promising strategy to increase photosynthetic efficiency and to enable utilization of high-intensity lights.
Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are genetic elements, which are encoded by plasmid as well as chromosomal loci and mediate plasmid and genomic island maintenance through post-segregational killing mechanisms. TA systems exist in surprisingly high numbers in all prokaryotes, but cyanobacterial TA systems have been only very poorly experimentally characterized so far. Cyanobacteria are the only prokaryotes that perform oxygenic photosynthesis. As such, cyanobacteria are of high ecological importance and are considered promising for the production of biofuels. Here, we present the molecular characterization of the sll7003/ssl7004 TA system encoded on plasmid pSYSA of the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 as involving a Mg2+-dependent RNA endonuclease activity targeting single-stranded RNA regions and demonstrate the functionality of four more TA systems encoded on this 100,749 bp plasmid. Furthermore, one additional type I, one additional type II and three free-standing TA system components are predicted on pSYSA, all of which appear active judged by their expression. By harboring at least seven simultaneously active TA systems, pSYSA appears as the plasmid most strongly selected for among all plasmids studied in this respect thus far. These results point to a high biological relevance of pSYSA, whose coding capacity is to 75% devoted to three distinct CRISPR systems mediating antiviral defense.
Phycobilisome (PBS) is a giant photosynthetic antenna associated with the thylakoid membranes of cyanobacteria and red algae. PBS consists of two domains: central core and peripheral rods assembled of disc-shaped phycobiliprotein aggregates and linker polypeptides. The study of the PBS architecture is hindered due to the lack of the data on the structure of the large ApcE-linker also called LCM. ApcE participates in the PBS core stabilization, PBS anchoring to the photosynthetic membrane, transfer of the light energy to chlorophyll, and, very probably, the interaction with the orange carotenoid protein (OCP) during the non-photochemical PBS quenching. We have constructed the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 mutant lacking 235 N-terminal amino acids of the chromophorylated PBLCM domain of ApcE. The altered fluorescence characteristics of the mutant PBSs indicate that the energy transfer to the terminal emitters within the mutant PBS is largely disturbed. The PBSs of the mutant become unable to attach to the thylakoid membrane, which correlates with the identified absence of the energy transfer from the PBSs to the photosystem II. At the same time, the energy transfer from the PBS to the photosystem I was registered in the mutant cells and seems to occur due to the small cylindrical CpcG2-PBSs formation in addition to the conventional PBSs. In contrast to the wild type Synechocystis, the OCP-mediated non-photochemical PBS quenching was not registered in the mutant cells. Thus, the PBLCM domain takes part in formation of the OCP binding site in the PBS.