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Concept: Suspect


BACKGROUND: The ability to drive is important for ensuring quality of life for many older adults. Glaucoma is prevalent in this age group and may affect driving. The purpose of this study is to determine if glaucoma and glaucomatous visual field (VF) loss are associated with driving cessation, limitations, and deference to another driver in older adults. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. Eighty-one glaucoma subjects and 58 glaucoma suspect controls between age 60 and 80 reported if they had ceased driving, limited their driving in various ways, or preferred another to drive. RESULTS: Twenty-three percent of glaucoma subjects and 6.9% of suspects had ceased driving (p = 0.01). Glaucoma subjects also had more driving limitations than suspects (2.0 vs. 1.1, p = 0.007). In multivariable models, driving cessation was more likely for glaucoma subjects as compared to suspects (OR = 4.0; 95% CI = 1.1-14.7; p = 0.03). The odds of driving cessation doubled with each 5 decibel (dB) decrement in the better-eye VF mean deviation (MD) (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.4-2.9; p < 0.001). Glaucoma subjects were also more likely than suspects to report a greater number of driving limitations (OR = 4.7; 95% CI = 1.3-16.8; p = 0.02). The likelihood of reporting more limitations increased with the VF loss severity (OR = 1.6/5 dB decrement in the better-eye VF MD; 95% CI = 1.1-2.4; p = 0.02). Neither glaucoma nor VF MD was associated with other driver preference (p > 0.1 for both). CONCLUSIONS: Glaucoma and glaucomatous VF loss are associated with greater likelihood of driving cessation and greater limitation of driving in the elderly. Further prospective study is merited to assess when and why people with glaucoma change their driving habits, and to determine if their observed self-regulation of driving is adequate to ensure safety.

Concepts: Middle age, Median, Gerontology, Old age, Absolute deviation, Ageing, Preference, Suspect


Several research studies have reported an elevated level of aggression in rapes committed by multiple perpetrators compared to rapes committed by lone suspects. Several factors that have been linked to elevated aggression in generic samples of rape were examined for the first time with a sample of multiple perpetrator rapes. Factors that might be associated with victim resistance were also investigated. Victim and offender characteristics, as well as the behaviors displayed by victims and offenders, were extracted from the police files of 89 multiple perpetrator stranger rapes perpetrated against female victims in the United Kingdom. These behaviors were rated for their level of suspect (non-sexual) aggression and victim resistance, respectively. Degree of victim resistance was significantly and positively associated with suspect aggression. Older victims were the recipients of significantly higher levels of suspect aggression. Victims who were incapacitated from drugs and/or alcohol were less likely to be the recipients of suspect aggression. Group leaders displayed more aggression towards the victim than the followers in the groups. The number of perpetrators was significantly related to the degree of resistance displayed by the victim with offences perpetrated by fewer suspects being characterized by more victim resistance. Research regarding cognitive appraisal during criminal interactions and the respective roles of offenders is referred to in considering these relationships.

Concepts: United Kingdom, Criminal law, Victim, The Victim, Suspect, Person of interest, Arguido, Law enforcement terminology


Physical and sexual violence heighten STI/HIV risk for women in sex work. Against this backdrop, we describe the nature of abuse against women in sex work, and its STI/HIV implications, across perpetrators.

Concepts: Sexual intercourse, Domestic violence, Criminal law, Violence, Human sexual behavior, Prostitution, Violence against women, Suspect


Recent efforts to partition the space of morality have focused on the descriptive content of distinct moral domains (e.g., harm versus purity), or alternatively, the relationship between the perpetrator and victim of moral violations. Across three studies, we demonstrate that harm and purity norms are relevant in distinct relational contexts. Moral judgments of purity violations, compared to harm violations, are relatively more sensitive to the negative impact perpetrators have on themselves versus other victims (Study 1). This pattern replicates across a wide array of harm and purity violations varying in severity (Studies 2 and 3). Moreover, while perceptions of harm predict moral judgment consistently across relational contexts, perceptions of purity predict moral judgment more for self-directed actions, where perpetrators violate themselves, compared to dyadic actions, where perpetrators violate other victims (Study 3). Together, these studies reveal how an action’s content and its relational context interact to influence moral judgment, providing novel insights into the adaptive functions of harm and purity norms.

Concepts: Criminal law, Morality, Moral, Victim, Judgment, Mores, Suspect, Descriptive ethics


This article critically explores accounts of how men attending domestic violence perpetrator programs (DVPP) used the “time out” strategy. Findings are drawn from 71 semi-structured interviews with 44 men attending DVPPs and 27 female partners or ex-partners of men in DVPPs. We describe three ways in which the technique was used: first, as intended, to interrupt potential physical violence; second, through the effective adaption of the time-out rules by victim-survivors; and finally, misappropriation by some men to continue and extend their controlling behaviors. Policy and practice lessons are drawn from the findings through connecting broader and deeper measurements of what success means when working with domestic violence perpetrators to the ways in which the time-out technique was used.

Concepts: Domestic violence, Violence, Child abuse, Masculism, The Technique, Debut albums, Violence against women, Suspect


From an evolutionary perspective, one should be more sensitive when outgroup members attack the ingroup but less so when ingroup or outgroup members fight among themselves. Indeed, previous behavioral and neuroimaging research demonstrated that people show greater sensitivity for the suffering of ingroup compared with outgroup members. However, the question still remains whether this is always the case regardless of who is the agent causing the harm. To examine the role of agency and group membership in perception of harm, 48 participants were scanned while viewing ingroup or outgroup perpetrators intentionally harming ingroup or outgroup members. Behavioral results showed greater moral sensitivity for ingroup versus outgroup victims, but only when the perpetrator was from the outgroup. In support of this finding, fMRI data showed greater activity in left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) for ingroup victims when they were harmed by outgroup individuals. In addition, effective connectivity analyses documented an increased coupling between left OFC and left amygdala and insula for ingroup harm, when the perpetrator was from the outgroup. Together these results indicate that we are highly sensitive to harm perpetrated by outgroup members and that increased sensitivity for ingroup victims is dependent on who is the agent of the action.

Concepts: Amygdala, Brain, Cerebrum, Limbic system, AGM-88 HARM, Ingroup, BELBIC, Suspect


Prospective longitudinal birth cohort data was used to examine the association between peer aggression at 14 years and mental health and substance use at 17 years. A sample of 1590 participants from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) study were divided into mutually exclusive categories (victims, perpetrators, victim-perpetrators and uninvolved). Involvement in any type of peer aggression as a victim (10.1%), perpetrator (21.4%), or a victim-perpetrator (8.7%) was reported by 40.2% of participants. After adjusting for confounding factors, those who were a victim of peer aggression had increased odds of later depression and internalising symptoms whilst perpetrators of peer aggression were found to be at increased risk of depression and harmful alcohol use. Victim-perpetrators of peer aggression were more likely to have externalising behaviours at 17 years. These results show an independent temporal relationship between peer aggression and later mental health and substance use problems in adolescence.

Concepts: Psychology, Cohort study, The Association, Adolescence, Peer group, Victim, Suspect, Internalization


Backboards have been shown to cause pain in uninjured patients. This may alter physical exam findings, leading emergency department (ED) providers to suspect a spinal injury when none exists resulting in additional imaging of the thoracolumbar spine. New York had previously employed a “Spinal Immobilization” protocol that included compulsory backboard application for all patients with suspected spinal injuries. In 2015, New York instituted a new “Spinal Motion Restriction” protocol that made backboard use optional for these patients. The objective of this study was to determine if this protocol change was associated with decreased backboard utilization and ED thoracolumbar spine imaging.

Concepts: Hospital, Vertebral column, Injury, Spinal cord injury, Physical examination, New York City, Suspect


To report 14 neoplasia-free feline eyes enucleated for suspected intraocular neoplasia containing only iridociliary cysts. To analyze clinical findings that may have led veterinarians to suspect neoplasia in these globes.

Concepts: Suspect


This study examined the presence and strengths of determinants associated with consultation of an in-house expert on child abuse and neglect (CAN) by preventive child health care professionals who suspect CAN. This study also assessed the relationship between in-house CAN expert consultation and professionals' performance of six recommended activities described in a national guideline on preventing CAN for preventive child health care professionals. A total of 154 professionals met the study’s inclusion criteria. They filled in a questionnaire that measured in-house consultation practices and twelve determinants associated with the professional, the in-house expert, and the organizational context. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed. Almost half of the participants (46.8%) reported to consult the in-house expert in (almost) all of their suspected CAN cases. Professionals who reported better recollection of consulting the in-house expert (i.e. not forgetting to consult the expert) (p=.001), who were more familiar with consultation (p=.002), who had more positive attitudes and beliefs about consultation (p=.011) and who reported being more susceptible to the behavior (p=.001) and expectations/opinions (p=.025) of colleagues regarding in-house expert consultation were more likely to consult the in-house expert. Furthermore, in-house expert consultation was positively associated with two of six key guideline activities: consulting the regional child protection service and monitoring whether support was provided to families. The implications of these results for improving professionals' responses to CAN are discussed.

Concepts: Health care, Health care provider, Regression analysis, Healthcare, Child abuse, Abuse, Neglect, Suspect