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Concept: Surveying


BACKGROUND: A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS); Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9 km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost effective manner. METHODS: The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. RESULTS: A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10 days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. CONCLUSIONS: The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only rarely was local knowledge required to identify and locate households. This method provides an important technique that can be applied to other developing countries where a randomized study design is needed but infrastructure is lacking to implement more traditional participant selection methods.

Concepts: Geographic information system, Randomness, Map, Global Positioning System, Remote sensing, Surveying, Geodesy, Google Earth


Here, we present results from a prospective pilot study that was aimed at surveying changes in daily cigarette consumption in smokers making their first purchase at vape shops. Modifications in products purchase were also noted.

Concepts: Smoking, Cigarette, Surveying


The behavioral management of laboratory nonhuman primates in the United States has not been thoroughly characterized since 2003. This article presents the results of a survey behavioral management programs at 27 facilities and covering a total of 59,636 primates, 27,916 housed in indoor cages and 31,720 in group enclosures. The survey included questions regarding program structure, implementation, and methodology associated with social housing, positive reinforcement training, positive human interaction, exercise enclosures, and several categories of inanimate enrichment. The vast majority of laboratory primates are housed socially (83%). Since 2003, the proportion of indoor-housed primates reported to be housed singly has fallen considerably, from 59% to 35% in the facilities surveyed. The use of social housing remains significantly constrained by: 1) research protocol requirements, highlighting the value of closely involved IACUCs for harmonizing research and behavioral management; and 2) the unavailability of compatible social partners, underscoring the necessity of objective analysis of the methods used to foster and maintain compatibility. Positive reinforcement training appears to have expanded and is now used at all facilities responding to the survey. The use of enrichment devices has also increased in the participating facilities. For most behavioral management techniques, concerns over the possibility of negative consequences to animals are expressed most frequently for social housing and destructible enrichment, while skepticism regarding efficacy is limited almost exclusively to sensory enrichment. Behavioral management program staffing has expanded over time in the facilities surveyed, due not only to increased numbers of dedicated behavioral management technicians but also to greater involvement of animal care technicians, suggesting an increase in the integration of behavioral care into animal husbandry. Broad awareness of common practice may assist facilities with program evaluation and assessment of progress in the field can generate recommendations for continuing the advancement of primate behavioral management programs. Am. J. Primatol. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Concepts: Evaluation, United States, Animal, Primate, Program, Reinforcement, Surveying, Program management


OBJECTIVES: Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) are lifesaving, but little is known about where they are located or how to find them. We sought to locate AEDs in high employment areas of Philadelphia and characterize the process of door-to-door surveying to identify these devices. METHODS: Block groups representing approximately the top 3rd of total primary jobs in Philadelphia were identified using the US Census Local Employment Dynamics database. All buildings within these block groups were surveyed during regular working hours over six weeks during July-August 2011. Buildings were characterized as publically accessible or inaccessible. For accessible buildings, address, location type, and AED presence were collected. Total devices, location description and prior use were gathered in locations with AEDs. Process information (total people contacted, survey duration) was collected for all buildings. RESULTS: Of 1420 buildings in 17 block groups, 949 (67%) were accessible, but most 834 (88%) did not have an AED. 283 AEDs were reported in 115 buildings (12%). 81 (29%) were validated through visualization and 68 (24%) through photo because employees often refused access. In buildings with AEDs, several employees (median 2; range 1-8) were contacted to ascertain information, which required several minutes (mean 4; range 1-55). CONCLUSIONS: Door-to-door surveying is a feasible, but time-consuming method for identifying AEDs in high employment areas. Few buildings reported having AEDs and few permitted visualization, which raises concerns about AED access. To improve cardiac arrest outcomes, efforts are needed to improve the availability of AEDs, awareness of their location and access to them.

Concepts: Surveying, Automated external defibrillator


Radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure from wireless telecommunication base station antennae can lead to debates, conflicts or litigations among the adjacent residents if inappropriately managed. This paper presents a measurement campaign for the GSM band EMF exposure in the vicinity of 827 base station sites (totally 6207 measurement points) in Guangxi, China. Measurement specifications are designed for risk communication with the residents who previously complained of over-exposure. The EMF power densities with the global positioning system coordinate at each measured point were recorded. Compliance with the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines and Chinese environmental EMF safety standards was studied. The results show that the GSM band EMF level near the base stations is very low. The measurement results and the EMF risk communication procedures positively influence public perception of the RF EMF exposure from the base stations and promote the exchange of EMF exposure-related knowledge.

Concepts: Ionizing radiation, Electromagnetism, Electromagnetic field, Quantum mechanics, Field, Radio, Surveying, Mobile phone radiation and health


OBJECTIVE: In aged-care facilities (ACFs) monitoring of warfarin can be logistically challenging and International Normalised Ratio (INR control) is often suboptimal. We aimed to determine whether an integrated information and communications technology system and the use of point-of-care (POC) monitors by nursing staff could improve the INR control of aged-care facility residents who take warfarin. METHODS: Nursing staff identified residents who were prescribed warfarin in participating ACFs. A computer program (MedePOC) was developed to store and transmit INR results from the ACFs to general practitioners (GPs) for dosage adjustment. Nursing staff received training in the use of the CoaguChek XS point-of-care INR monitor and the MedePOC software. Following a run-in phase, eligible patients were monitored weekly for up to 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the change in the time in therapeutic range (TTR) in the intervention phase compared to the TTR in the 12 months preceding the study. All GPs, nursing staff and patients were surveyed for their experiences and opinions of the project. KEY FINDINGS: Twenty-four patients and 19 GPs completed the trial across six ACFs. The mean TTR for all patients improved non-significantly from 58.9 to 60.6% (P = 0.79) and the proportion of INR tests in range improved non-significantly from 57.1 to 64.1% (P = 0.21). The mean TTR improved in 14 patients (58%) and in these patients the mean absolute improvement in TTR was 23.1%. A post hoc analysis of the INR data using modified therapeutic INR ranges to reflect the dosage adjustment practices of GPs suggested that the intervention did lead to improved INR control. The MedePOC program and POC monitoring was well received by nursing staff. CONCLUSIONS: Weekly POC INR monitoring conducted in ACFs and electronic communication of the results and warfarin doses resulted in non-significant improvements in INR control in a small cohort of elderly residents. Further research involving modification to the communication strategy and a longer follow-up period is warranted to investigate whether this strategy can improve INR control and clinical outcomes in this vulnerable population.

Concepts: Game theory, Better, Improve, Dose, Communication, Prothrombin time, Surveying, Geodesy


Adequate dual antiplatelet (AP) therapy is imperative when performing neurovascular stenting procedures. Currently, no consensus for the ideal AP regimen exists. Thus the present study aimed to gain a better understanding of real world practice AP patterns by surveying neurointerventional surgeons.

Concepts: Present, Truth, Earth, United States, Reality, Surveying, Geodesy


The Auckland Stillbirth study demonstrated a two-fold increased risk of late stillbirth for women who did not go to sleep on their left side. Two further studies have confirmed an increased risk of late stillbirth with supine sleep position. As sleep position is modifiable, we surveyed self-reported late pregnancy sleep position, knowledge about sleep position, and views about changing going-to-sleep position.

Concepts: Childbirth, Obstetrics, Geometry, New Zealand, Cultural studies, Denmark, Surveying, Auckland


Detailed geodetic imaging of earthquake rupture enhances our understanding of earthquake physics and induced ground shaking. The April 25, 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake is the first example of a large continental megathrust rupture beneath a high-rate (5 Hz) GPS network. We use GPS and InSAR data to model the earthquake rupture as a slip pulse of ~20 km width, ~6 s duration, and with peak sliding velocity of 1.1 m/s that propagated toward Kathmandu basin at ~3.3 km/s over ~140 km. The smooth slip onset, indicating a large ~5 m slip-weakening distance, caused moderate ground shaking at high >1Hz frequencies (~16% g) and limited damage to regular dwellings. Whole basin resonance at 4-5 s period caused collapse of tall structures, including cultural artifacts.

Concepts: Navigation, Global Positioning System, Surveying, Latitude, GPS, Speed of light, Geodesy, Kathmandu


We surveyed Ohio acute care hospitals on laboratory testing used for diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Of 146 hospitals surveyed, 109 (84%) used nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) as stand-alone diagnostic assays. Only 53 (42.4%) hospitals using NAATs had a mechanism in place to prevent repeat CDI testing.

Concepts: Medical terms, Diagnosis, Nucleic acid, Clostridium difficile, Software testing, Medical test, Clostridium, Surveying