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Concept: Surgeon


Situs inversus totalis is very rare and usually diagnosed coincidentally as it does not affect the patient’s life. Being unaware of the patient’s condition can lead to undesirable results from the surgeon and patient’s point of view when an emergency and forensic surgical intervention is required. We present a case who was operated on urgently for a firearm injury after receiving a preoperative diagnosis of situs inversus totalis. In conclusion, situs inversus totalis can cause difficulties for surgeons in case of emergency surgery and is usually diagnosed coincidentally. There are a few cases of situs inversus with lung cancer in the literature but this is the first time a case with a firearm injury has been reported.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Physician, Surgeon, American College of Surgeons, Situs inversus


BACKGROUND: The sheer number of accepted inferior turbinoplasty techniques emphasizes the fact that there is no general agreement on which approach yields optimal results, nor are there data available that describes prevalent techniques in turbinate surgery among plastic surgeons. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify practice patterns among plastic surgeons who perform inferior turbinoplasty during rhinoplasty. METHODS: Members of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons were invited to participate in an anonymous, Internet-based survey containing questions related to personal preferences and outcomes in inferior turbinate surgery. RESULTS: A total of 534 members of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons participated in the survey. Most (71.7%) trained in an independent plastic surgery program with prerequisite training in general surgery. More than half (50.6%) had more than 20 years of operative experience; only 15.2% reported performing greater than 40 rhinoplasties per year. The 5 most preferred inferior turbinate reduction techniques were outfracture of the turbinates (49.1%), partial turbinectomy (33.3%), submucous reduction via electrocautery (25.3%), submucous resection (23.6%), and electrocautery (22.5%). Fewer than 10% of the respondents reported the use of newer techniques such as radiofrequency thermal ablation (5.6%), use of the microdebrider (2.2%), laser cautery (1.1%), or cryosurgery (0.6%). Mucosal crusting and desiccation were the most frequently reported complications. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this survey provide insights into the current preferences in inferior turbinate reduction surgery. Plastic surgeons are performing more conventional methods of turbinate reduction rather than taking advantage of the many of the more novel technology-driven methods.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Plastic surgery, Surgeon, Reconstructive surgery, General surgery, Rhinoplasty, Cauterization


OBJECTIVE: To compare the ergonomics and workload of the surgeon during single-site suturing while using the magnetic anchoring and guidance system (MAGS) camera vs a conventional laparoscope. METHODS: Seven urologic surgeons were enrolled and divided into an expert group (n = 2) and a novice group (n = 5) according to their laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) experience. Each surgeon performed 2 conventional LESS and 2 MAGS camera-assisted LESS vesicostomy closures in a porcine model. A Likert scale (scoring 1-5) questionnaire assessing workload, ergonomics, technical difficulty, visualization, and needle handling, as well as a validated National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) questionnaire were used to evaluate the tasks and workloads. RESULTS: MAGS LESS suturing was universally favored by expert and novice surgeons compared with conventional LESS in workload (3.4 vs 4.2), ergonomics (3.4 vs 4.4), technical challenge (3.3 vs 4.3), visualization (2.4 vs 3.3), and needle handling (3.1 vs 3.9 respectively; P <.05 for all categories). Surgeon NASA-TLX assessments found MAGS LESS suturing significantly decreased the workload in physical demand (P = .004), temporal demand (P = .017), and effort (P = .006). External instrument clashing was significantly reduced in MAGS LESS suturing (P <.001). The total operative time of MAGS LESS suturing was comparable to that of conventional LESS (P = .89). CONCLUSION: MAGS camera technology significantly decreased surgeon workload and improved ergonomics. Nevertheless, LESS suturing and knot tying remains a challenging task that requires training, regardless of which camera is used.

Concepts: Surgery, Knot, Surgeon, Task, Likert scale, Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi, Rocket


During surgery, various images as well as other relevant visual information are usually shown upon request with the help of operating staff. However, the lack of direct control over the display may represent a source of stress for surgeons, particularly when fast decision-making is needed.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Physician, Computer graphics, Surgeon, American College of Surgeons


Endoscopic cubital tunnel release was originally described in 1989 by Tsai, and his technique has been modified by other surgeons including Mirza and Cobb. In 2006, Hoffmann and Siemionow described an endoscopic technique quite different from Tsai’s original description. Instead of working from the “inside out,” Hoffmann’s technique is performed through an incision similar to that which would be used for an in situ release of the ulnar nerve. The main difference being that the nerve can be explored and decompressed 10 cm proximal and distal to the arcuate ligament as the surgeon looks down on the nerve and the surrounding tissues while viewing the anatomy through a camera attached to a soft tissue endoscope that is inserted in the wound. The arcuate (Osborne’s) ligament is released under direct vision much like a standard in situ decompression. Using a blunt dissection instrument, a workspace is created proximally and distally to the cubital tunnel. Next an illuminated speculum is introduced, the nerve is directly visualized between 4 and 5 cm proximal and distal to the cubital tunnel, and potential compressive forearm fasciae or fibrous bands are released. Finally, a 15-cm, 30° soft tissue endoscope is introduced into the incision, and viewing the internal anatomy on a video monitor, the decompression continues using longer scissors. Any potential bleeding is controlled with a long bayonet bipolar cautery. The authors discuss indications, contraindications, and the surgical technique. Postoperative management and associated complications are also discussed.

Concepts: Surgery, Tissues, Surgeon, Ulnar nerve, Ulnar artery, Cubital tunnel, Ulnar nerve entrapment, Cauterization


STUDY DESIGN:: Retrospective study. OBJECTIVE:: The authors evaluated the surgical technique and learning curve for video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) for treating thoracolumbar burst fractures and bony tumors by examining surgical data and outcome for the first 30 VATS procedures performed by a single surgeon at a training institution. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:: VATS is commonly used in the treatment of early-stage lung cancer. The widespread use of this technique among neurosurgeons is limited by the lack of cases and the steep learning curve. METHODS:: This study was a retrospective case series of the first 30 T12 and L1 thoracoscopic vertebrectomies from 2003 to 2008. The sample was limited to one surgeon and one region of the spine to minimize the potential variation so that a learning curve could be assessed. Surgical data and outcomes were analyzed. Estimated blood loss and operation time were analyzed using a linear generalized estimating equation model with a first-order autoregression correlation structure. RESULTS:: The average operative time for thoracoscopic corpectomy was 270±65 minutes (range 160-416 min). Operating room time decreased significantly after the first 3 operations. The authors observed a stable linear decrease in operating time over the course of the study. The average blood loss during the thoracoscopic procedure was 433±330 mL (range 100-1500 mL) and did not change as the series progressed. Complications and conversions to open procedures occurred in 2 patients and were evenly distributed throughout the series. CONCLUSIONS:: Thoracoscopic vertebrectomy at the thoracolumbar junction has a relatively long learning curve. In this series, operating room time improved dramatically after the first 3 cases but continued to improve subsequently. The learning curve can be accomplished without an increase in blood loss, complications, rate of conversion to open procedures, or frequency of misplaced instrumentation.

Concepts: Cancer, Surgery, Physician, Surgeon, Learning curve, Thoracic surgery, VATS lobectomy, Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery


Trainee surgeons would benefit from regular, formative assessments to ensure they learn the nontechnical aspects of surgical performance. Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons in Denmark (NOTSSdk) is a tool to assess surgeons' nontechnical skills (NTS) during an operation. The aims of this study were to explore which parts of NOTSSdk supervisors use to assess trainee surgeons' NTS, to determine the internal consistency reliability of NOTSSdk, and to estimate how many operations were needed to obtain reliable ratings of a trainee surgeon’s NTS.

Concepts: Surgery, Psychometrics, Skill, Reliability, Surgeon, Internal consistency, Summative assessment, Formative assessment


A new palatal procedure for snoring/obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is described. The procedure was named as barbed reposition pharyngoplasty (BRP). The technique is described step by step. The new surgical technique was carried out in ten adult OSA patients with mean age of 53.4 ± 12.4 years (average 30-70) with confirmed retropalatal obstruction. In this pilot study; we assessed the feasibility by calculating the number of cases that failed to be operated and converted to other palatal technique during the same surgical setting, safety was assessed by evaluating both intra-operative and post-operative complications, teachability measured by the learning curve of our team members (the time of surgical procedure). In this study, the technique is proved to be feasible in all cases. There were no significant intra-operative or post-operative complications. Objective clinical improvement was confirmed by polysomnography 6 months post-operative with significant decrease in mean AHI from 43.65 ± 26.83 to 13.57 ± 15.41 (P = 0.007), daytime sleepiness assessed by Epworth Sleepiness Scale from 11.6 ± 4.86 to 4.3 ± 2 (P < 0.01), ODI from 44.7 ± 27.3 to 12.9 ± 16.3 (P = 0.004). Operative time decreased over the course of the study with an initial steep ascent in technical skill acquisition followed by more gradual improvement, and a steady decrease in operative time to as short as 20 min. Our preliminary results suggest that BRP technique is feasible, safe and effective in management of OSA patients. Moreover, it is easy to learn even for not experienced surgeons, less time consuming and with no significant complications.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Sleep, Physician, Learning, Sleep apnea, Surgeon, Epworth Sleepiness Scale


Scaphocephaly is the most common single suture craniosynostosis. Surgical technique has evolved from simple strip craniectomy over π-procedures and vertex craniectomies to extensive cranial remodeling which is preferred procedure nowadays. The purpose of this paper is to present our modification of Renier’s standard “H” technique and its preliminary results in detail. Eleven patients with scaphocephaly were surgically treated from January 2011 until January 2014. Only children with isolated sagittal synostosis were included in the study. Our modified Renier’s technique reduces the possibility of lesion of superior sagittal sinus, dividing parietal bone in three bone fragments, thus achieving shortening of the scull in AP diameter without detaching the bone from the superior sagittal sinus. The possibility for potential secondary stenosis is minimized using extended V-shaped osteotomies with rounding of the bone edges, as well as making wide neocoronal and neolambdoid sutures. Cosmetic results were estimated as very pleasing immediately after surgery by both the parents and the surgeons in all cases. The majority of patients presented in our study were categorized as Sloan Class 1. Improvement or normalization of the cranial index was accomplished in all patients. No revision surgeries were required during the follow-up. Triple square extended osteotomies technique is a fast, simple, and efficient surgical option for children with sagittal synostosis and can be safely applied in the first months of life in children even under weight of 6 kilos. Preliminary results are encouraging and deserve a longer follow-up and comparative surgical analysis to verify its usefulness in the future.

Concepts: Medicine, Hospital, Surgery, Physician, Skull, Anesthesia, Al-Andalus, Surgeon


We developed and evaluated a visual compensation system that allows surgeons to visualize obscured regions in real time, such that the surgical instrument appears virtually transparent.

Concepts: Hospital, Optical fiber, Surgery, Physician, Surgical instrument, Surgeon, American College of Surgeons, Surgical technologist