Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Surface area


We report a novel approach to synthesize chemical vapor deposition-grown three-dimensional graphene nano-networks (3D-GNs) that can be mass produced with large-area coverage. Annealing of a PVA/iron precursor under a hydrogen environment, infiltrated into 3D-assembled-colloidal silicas reduces iron ions and generates few-layer graphene by precipitation of carbon on the iron surface. The 3D-GN can be grown on any electronic device-compatible substrate, such as Al2O3, Si, GaN, or Quartz. The conductivity and surface area of a 3D-GN are 52 S/cm and 1,025 m(2)/g, respectively, which are much better than the previously reported values. Furthermore, electrochemical double-layer capacitors based on the 3D-GN have superior supercapacitor performance with a specific capacitance of 245 F/g and 96.5% retention after 6,000 cycles due to the outstanding conductivity and large surface area. The excellent performance of the 3D-GN as an electrode for supercapacitors suggests the great potential of interconnected graphene networks in nano-electronic devices and energy-related materials.

Concepts: Earth, Hydrogen, Industrial Revolution, Carbon, Aluminium, Chemical vapor deposition, Silicon carbide, Surface area


Silver nanoparticles supported on nanoscale silicate platelets (AgNP/NSP) possess interesting properties, including a large surface area and high biocide effectiveness. The nanohybrid of AgNP/NSP at a weight ratio 7/93 contains 5-nm Ag particles supported on the surface of platelets with dimensions of approximately 80×80×1 nm(3). The nanohybrid expresses a trend of lower cytotoxicity at the concentration of 8.75 ppm Ag and low genotoxicity. Compared with conventional silver ions and the organically dispersed AgNPs, the nanohybrid promotes wound healing. We investigated overall wound healing by using acute burn and excision wound healing models. Tests on both infected wound models of mice were compared among the AgNP/NSP, polymer-dispersed AgNPs, the commercially available Aquacel, and silver sulfadiazine. The AgNP/NSP nanohybrid was superior for wound appearance, but had similar wound healing rates, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A levels and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 expressions to Aquacel and silver sulfadiazine.

Concepts: Wound healing, Angiogenesis, Coagulation, Platelet, Nanotechnology, Silver, Surface area


Circumnutation, the helical movement of growing organ tips, is ubiquitous in land plants. The mechanisms underlying circumnutation have been debated since Darwin’s time. Experiments in space and mutant analyses have revealed that internal oscillatory (tropism-independent) movement and gravitropic response are involved in circumnutation. Female flower buds of tape grass (Vallisneria asiatica var. biwaensis) circumnutate on the water surface. Our observations and experiments with an artificial model indicated that gravitropism is barely involved in circumnutation. Instead, we show that helical intercalary growth at the base of peduncle plays the primary role in all movements in Vallisneria. This growth pattern produces torsional bud rotation, and gravity and buoyancy forces have a physical effect on the direction of peduncle elongation, resulting in bud circumnutation on the water surface. In contrast to other water-pollinated hydrophilous plants, circumnutation in Vallisneria enables female flowers to actively collect male flowers from a larger surface area of water.

Concepts: Plant, Bud, Buoyancy, Root, Flower, Plant stem, Plant sexuality, Surface area


In nanostructured thin films, photogenerated charge carriers can access the surface more easily than in dense films and thus react more readily. However, the high surface area of these films has also been associated with enhanced recombination losses via surface states. We herein use transient absorption spectroscopy to compare the ultrafast charge carrier kinetics in dense and nanostructured TiO2 films for its two most widely used polymorphs: anatase and rutile. We find that nanostructuring does not enhance recombination rates on ultrafast timescales, indicating that surface state mediated recombination is not a key loss pathway for either TiO2 polymorph. Rutile shows faster, and less intensity-dependent recombination than anatase, which we assign to its higher doping density. For both polymorphs, we conclude that bulk rather than surface recombination is the primary determinant of charge carrier lifetime.

Concepts: Density, Solar cell, Titanium dioxide, Rutile, Absorption spectroscopy, Surface area, Anatase, Charge carrier


Lakes are key components of biogeochemical and ecological processes, thus knowledge about their distribution, volume and residence time is crucial in understanding their properties and interactions within the Earth system. However, global information is scarce and inconsistent across spatial scales and regions. Here we develop a geo-statistical model to estimate the volume of global lakes with a surface area of at least 10 ha based on the surrounding terrain information. Our spatially resolved database shows 1.42 million individual polygons of natural lakes with a total surface area of 2.67 × 10(6) km(2) (1.8% of global land area), a total shoreline length of 7.2 × 10(6) km (about four times longer than the world’s ocean coastline) and a total volume of 181.9 × 10(3) km(3) (0.8% of total global non-frozen terrestrial water stocks). We also compute mean and median hydraulic residence times for all lakes to be 1,834 days and 456 days, respectively.

Concepts: Time, Volume, Earth, Parametric surface, Sphere, Cylinder, Area, Surface area


Hernia repairs in contaminated fields are often reinforced with a bioprosthetic mesh. When choosing which of the multiple musculofascial abdominal wall planes provides the most durable repair, there is little guidance. We hypothesized that the retro-rectus plane would reduce recurrence rates versus intraperitoneal placement due to greater surface area contact of mesh with well-vascularized tissue.

Concepts: Surgery, Hernia, Hernias, Area, Surface area, Reinforcement, Pediatric surgery


This paper reports the development of arrays of capillary-based low-temperature plasma (LTP) probes for direct sample analysis. These probe arrays allow a higher surface area to be analyzed, increasing the throughput in large sample analysis. Validation of these arrays was performed on illicit, cathinone-based drugs marketed as ‘bath salts’.

Concepts: Mass spectrometry, Magnesium sulfate, Area, Surface area, Space probe, Bath salts


Two dicopper(ii)-paddlewheel-based metal-organic frameworks (PCN-81 and -82) have been synthesized by using tetratopic ligands featuring 90°-carbazole-dicarboxylate moieties. Both adopt 12-connected tfb topology with nanoscopic octahedra as building units. The freeze-dried PCN-82 shows Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Langmuir surface areas as high as 4488 and 4859 m(2) g(-1), respectively. It also exhibits high H(2)-adsorption capacity at low pressure (300 cm(3) g(-1) or 2.6 wt% at 77 K and 1 bar), which can be attributed to its high surface area, microporosity, and open metal sites.

Concepts: Volume, Metal-organic framework, Area, Surface area, Vacuum, Open set, Square, Weather map


Two kinds of Cu(2)O-ZnO nano-heteroarchitectures were fabricated through a hydrothermal method. By utilizing polyethyleneimine (PEI) as a binding agent, ZnO nanoparticles were uniformly self-assembled onto Cu(2)O micro structures. Photoluminescence (PL), field emission and photocatalytic activities of the composite samples were investigated and compared with those of the pure Cu(2)O samples. The results reveal that ZnO nanoparticles combined on Cu(2)O microstructures remarkably changed the PL signals, and significantly enhanced the field emission and photocatalytic activities. The novel PL properties, enhanced field emission and photocatalysis activities are attributed to the electron transition and the inhibition of photo-induced electron-hole pairs recombination, which stem from interfacial defect states and energy band differentials at the interface of Cu(2)O and ZnO. The surface nano-protrusions, large surface area and better dye adsorption induced by ZnO nanoparticles are responsible for the field emission and photocatalysis improvements as well.

Concepts: Catalysis, Semiconductor, Titanium dioxide, Object-oriented programming, Surface area, Electronic band structure, Band gap, Electron hole


A zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured thin film synthesized by a vapour phase transport technique on a platinum coated silicon (Pt/Si) substrate has been successfully utilized for the detection of cholesterol. Amperometric and photometric studies reveal that the prepared bioelectrode ChOx/ZnO/Pt/Si is highly sensitive to the detection of cholesterol over a wide concentration range, 0.12-12.93 mM (5-500 mg dl(-1)). The higher sensitivity is attributed to the large surface area of ZnO thin film for effective loading of ChOx besides its high electron communication capability. A relatively low value of the enzyme’s kinetic parameter (Michaelis-Menten constant, 1.08 mM) indicates an enhanced affinity of the enzyme (ChOx) towards the analyte (cholesterol). The prepared bioelectrode is found to exhibit a long shelf life of more than 10 weeks, having negligible interference from the presence of other biomolecules present in human serum indicating potential application of the ZnO nanostructured thin film for cholesterol sensing.

Concepts: Oxygen, Ultraviolet, Zinc, Titanium dioxide, Zinc oxide, Sunscreen, Surface area, Brass