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Concept: Superior vena cava


Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is present in about 0.3%-0.5% of the general population and in about 12% of patients with other abnormalities [1]. This congenital anomaly is usually asymptomatic and does not cause any physiological problems. However, it may become a significant problem in multiple clinical situations. Various complications related to PLVSC are encountered in anaesthesiological, nephrological, oncological and cardiological procedures. The presence of PLSVC is usually incidentally detected during placement of pacemaker (PM), implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) leads. Technical difficulties during lead positioning (especially ventricular leads) are commonly known and often described in the literature. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the specific methods used for implantation of increasingly complicated pacing systems, finding an optimal strategy in patients with PLSVC, especially with electrotherapy complications.

Concepts: Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, Cardiac electrophysiology, Magnetic resonance imaging, Vein, Inferior vena cava, Superior vena cava, Artificial pacemaker, Transcutaneous pacing


Abstract This article reports the case of a 22-year-old woman with right renal angiomyolipoma (AML) and inferior vena cava thrombus. Laparoscopic right nephrectomy and thrombectomy were performed. To the authors' knowledge there have been only 46 reported cases of renal AML with endovascular extension and this is the first case to be completely removed by a laparoscopic approach. Laparoscopic management of this kind of tumour is feasible in spite of the vascular involvement. The centre’s experience and enlargement of the tumour are key points for this approach.

Concepts: Kidney, Report, Case, Renal vein, Inferior vena cava, Superior vena cava, Angiomyolipoma, Carly Simon


Subjects with persistent left superior vena cava were classified on the basis of the presence and thickness of both superior venae cavae, the anastomotic ramus between the superior venae cavae (anastomotic ramus), and the presence of both azygos veins. Among subjects with persistent left superior vena cava, the percentage of those with weak development of the anastomotic ramus (41.5 %) or absence of an anastomotic ramus (35.8 %) was 77.3 %. In addition, 54.7 % of subjects had a left azygos vein. However, 88.7 % of subjects had a right azygos vein. In this classification, the most frequently observed types included the presence of both superior venae cavae, an anastomotic ramus, and both azygos veins (20.8 %). During student dissection practice sessions performed on 337 cadavers that were carried out from 2002 through 2010, a subject having a left superior vena cava (in 2002) and a subject having both superior venae cavae (in 2003) were detected. The former case was reported previously. The latter case is reported in this paper. The incidence of persistent left superior vena cava was 0.59 % (2/337 cadavers).

Concepts: Vein, Inferior vena cava, Superior vena cava, Veins of the torso, Azygos vein, Persistent left superior vena cava


Cardiac hemangiomas represent 1 to 2% of all detected benign heart tumors. Tumors in the coronary sinus have been reported; however, to our knowledge, there have been no reports of masses in a persistent left superior vena cava. We report here the first case of a 58-year-old man with a rare huge unicamerate cardiac hemangiomas in a persistent left superior vena cava. A communication vein between the coronary sinus and hemangiomas could be identified, and thrombus formation was found in the hemangiomas as well.

Concepts: Heart, Report, Artery, Vein, Inferior vena cava, Superior vena cava, Hemangioma, Sinus venosus


The purpose of this review was to examine recent studies concerning the use of inferior vena cava (IVC) filters.

Concepts: Inferior vena cava, Superior vena cava, Inferior vena cava filter


Single ventricle defects, including inflow emptying into 1 ventricle, occur at an incidence of 0.05-0.1 per 10,000 live births. The association of total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage (TAPVD) with single ventricle defects is a risk factor for poor outcome. Conversely, common atrium, a rare congenital anomaly, is an endocardial cushion defect. We present a rare case of an unoperated patient with coincidence of a single ventricle defect, TAPVD with direct drainage from the pulmonary veins into the superior vena cava, and common atrium. To the best of our knowledge, such a case has not been previously reported in the literature.

Concepts: Blood, Lung, Heart, Vein, Inferior vena cava, Superior vena cava, Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection


Venous catheters provide access for hemodialysis (HD) when patients do not have functioning access device. Obstruction of jugular, femoral or even external iliac vessels further depletes options. Subclavian approach is prohibited. Catheterization of inferior vena cava requires specialized equipment and skills.

Concepts: Central venous catheter, Femoral artery, External iliac artery, Inferior vena cava, Deep vein thrombosis, Deep vein, Superior vena cava, External iliac vein


Deep venous thrombosis treatment using catheter-directed thrombolysis is advocated over systemic thrombolysis because it reduces bleeding complications. With the development of a catheter that combines ultrasound vibrations and the local delivering of thrombolytics, new and safer treatments appear that are suitable for more complex problems.

Concepts: Blood, Thrombosis, Vein, Inferior vena cava, Deep vein thrombosis, Deep vein, Thrombolysis, Superior vena cava


Trauma patients are at high risk for life-threatening venous thromboembolic (VTE) events. We examined the relationship between prophylactic inferior vena cava (IVC) filter use, mortality, and VTE.

Concepts: Vein, Inferior vena cava, Superior vena cava, Inferior vena cava filter


We have almost no information concerning the value of inferior vena cava (IVC) respiratory variations in spontaneously breathing ICU patients (SBP) to predict fluid responsiveness.

Concepts: Inferior vena cava, Superior vena cava