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Concept: Superficial vein


Saphenous donor site neuralgia is a cause of morbidity post-coronary artery bypass surgery. Saphenous nerve damage during harvesting of the great saphenous vein is thought to be responsible. We dissected 37 cadaveric lower limbs from the knee fold to the dorsal venous arches, to study the spatial relations of the saphenous nerve and great saphenous vein to identify its distribution within the leg. Distribution of the saphenous nerve was categorized into Type A, where the nerve traveled inferiorly and split into an anterior and posterior branch during its course between the knee fold and medial malleolus, Type B, where the nerve traveled anterior to the vein with a small caliber branch traveling posteriorly at the proximal end, Type C where two main branches originated at the knee fold, one anterior to and one posterior to the vein. Overall the vein and nerve crossed in 27 out of the 37 cases (73%), occurring between 5 and 29 cm from the malleolus (60% occurred between 16 and 26 cm). In 32 (86%) of cases, the distal part of the nerve and vein were tightly adhered to each other within a common sheath. The length of adherence ranged from 3 to 26 cm with an average of 14 cm. The saphenous nerve is highly vulnerable during harvesting of the great saphenous vein due to its close relationship and crossing branches. Knowledge of the distribution categories of the nerve can help guide the surgeon to avoid damaging nerve branches during harvesting. Clin. Anat. Clin. Anat. 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Concepts: Blood, Artery, Vein, Coronary artery bypass surgery, Great saphenous vein, Ankle, Saphenous nerve, Superficial vein


INTRODUCTION:: No randomized clinical trial comparing treatment options for small saphenous vein (SSV) incompetence exists, and there is no clear evidence that this axis behaves the same as the great saphenous vein after treatment. This means that the existing literature base, centered on the treatment of great saphenous vein incompetence cannot simply be extrapolated to inform the management of SSV insufficiency. This trial compares the gold standard of conventional surgery and endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) in the management of SSV incompetence. METHODS:: Patients with unilateral, primary saphenopopliteal junction incompetence and SSV reflux were randomized equally into parallel groups receiving either surgery or EVLA. Patients were assessed at baseline and weeks 1, 6, 12, and 52. Outcomes included successful abolition of axial reflux on duplex, visual analog pain scores, recovery time, complication rates, Venous Clinical Severity Score, and quality of life profiling. RESULTS:: A total of 106 patients were recruited and randomized to surgery (n = 53) or EVLA (n = 53). Abolition of SSV reflux was significantly higher after EVLA (96.2%) than surgery (71.7%) (P < 0.001). Postoperative pain was significantly lower after EVLA (P < 0.05), allowing an earlier return to work and normal function (P < 0.001). Minor sensory disturbance was significantly lower in the EVLA group (7.5%) than in surgery (26.4%) (P = 0.009). Both groups demonstrated similar improvements in Venous Clinical Severity Score and quality of life. CONCLUSION:: EVLA produced the same clinical benefits as conventional surgery but was more effective in addressing the underlying pathophysiology and was associated with less periprocedural morbidity allowing a faster recovery. (Registration number: NCT00841178.).

Concepts: Clinical trial, Vein, Great saphenous vein, Varicose veins, Sclerotherapy, Superficial vein, Dorsal venous arch of the foot, Small saphenous vein


BACKGROUND: Endovenous Laser Ablation (EVLA) is one of the most accepted treatment options for varicose veins. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of the new radial fiber slim (ELVeS-radial-slim kit™) for the 1470 nm diode laser in perforator veins with a 1 month follow-up. METHODS: Our prospective observational cohort study comprised 69 perforating veins in 55 patients. Ninety percent of all patients were in the CEAP-stage C3-C6. The radial fiber slim was used to occlude the perforating vein and the great or small saphenous vein in the same procedure. The primary efficacy endpoint of the study was ultrasonographically proven elimination of venous reflux in the perforating vein after at least one month. Secondary efficacy and further safety end points after one month were as follows: (1) sonographic exclusion of recanalization of the treated vein segments, (2) deep vein thrombosis (DVT), clinical pulmonary embolism (PE), or superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) as defined by objective testing, (3) death from any cause, (4) persistent clinical complaints such as pain and paresthesia. RESULTS: Follow-up could be completed in all patients. In all treated perforating varicose veins, occlusion with elimination of reflux could be demonstrated immediately after the procedure. After one month 95.6% of the treated veins were still occluded (67/69). During follow-up, we did not diagnose any DVT, PE or SVT in the area related to the treated perforating vein. No patient died. One patient reported paresthesia distally of the puncture site. CONCLUSION: Endovenous laser treatment of varicose perforating veins with 1470 nm diode laser using the radial fiber slim is effective and safe with low recanalization rates during 1-month follow-up.

Concepts: Vein, Great saphenous vein, Deep vein thrombosis, Deep vein, Vascular surgery, Varicose veins, Sclerotherapy, Superficial vein


We assessed the incidence of venous thromboembolism following treatment of great saphenous insufficiency by endovenous thermal ablation or foam sclerotherapy using meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials and case series.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Randomized controlled trial, Vein, Great saphenous vein, Varicose veins, Sclerotherapy, Saphenous nerve, Superficial vein




Pregnancy has significant effects on the lower extremity venous system. Increasing venous pressure and blood volume, in combination with reduced flow rates within the deep veins, predisposes pregnant women to both primary and secondary chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). This review article highlights the specific physiologic and hemodynamic changes that occur during pregnancy and examines the nonpharmacologic, pharmacologic, and invasive interventions that are appropriate for both prophylaxis and treatment of CVI and venous thromboembolism (VTE).

Concepts: Blood, Heart, Thrombosis, Artery, Vein, Deep vein, Varicose veins, Superficial vein


Cyanoacrylate closure of the great saphenous vein with the VenaSeal™ Closure System is a relatively new modality. Studies have been limited to moderate-sized great saphenous veins and some have mandated postoperative compression stockings. We report the results of a prospective study of cyanoacrylate closure for the treatment of great saphenous vein, small saphenous veins, and/or accessory saphenous veins up to 20 mm in diameter.

Concepts: Great saphenous vein, Varicose veins, Saphenous nerve, Superficial vein, Dorsal venous arch of the foot, Small saphenous vein, Veins of the lower limb


Although common, little is known about factors associated with peripherally inserted central catheter-related deep vein thrombosis (PICC-DVT). To better guide clinicians, we performed a comprehensive literature review to summarize best practices for this condition.

Concepts: Thrombosis, Hematology, Vein, Deep vein thrombosis, Deep vein, Best practice, Superficial vein


Whereas thermal ablation of incompetent saphenous veins is highly effective, all heat-based ablation techniques require the use of perivenous subfascial tumescent anesthesia, involving multiple needle punctures along the course of the target vein. Preliminary evidence suggests that cyanoacrylate embolization (CAE) may be effective in the treatment of incompetent great saphenous veins (GSVs). We report herein early results of a randomized trial of CAE vs radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of symptomatic incompetent GSVs.

Concepts: Medical terms, Randomized controlled trial, Great saphenous vein, Varicose veins, Superficial vein