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Concept: Sumac

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Rhus coriaria L. (sumac) is an important crop widely used in the Mediterranean basin as a food spice, and also in folk medicine, due to its health-promoting properties. Phytochemicals present in plant foods are in part responsible for these consequent health benefits. Nevertheless, detailed information on these bioactive compounds is still scarce. Therefore, the present work was aimed at investigating the phytochemical components of sumac fruit epicarp using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS in two different ionisation modes. The proposed method provided tentative identification of 211 phenolic and other phyto-constituents, most of which have not been described so far in R. coriaria fruits. More than 180 phytochemicals (tannins, (iso)flavonoids, terpenoids, etc.) are reported herein in sumac fruits for the first time. The obtained results highlight the importance of R. coriaria as a promising source of functional ingredients, and boost its potential use in the food and nutraceutical industries.

Concepts: Time, Nutrition, Plant, Citrus, Fruit, Spice, Sumac, Rhus

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For the first time, response surface methodology (RSM) using a Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was employed to optimize the conditions for ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) of antioxidants from Chinese sumac (Rhus typhina L.) fruits. Initially, influencing factors such as liquid-solid ratio, duration of ultrasonic assisted extraction, pH range, extraction temperature and ethanol concentration were identified using single-factor experiments. Then, with respect to the three most significant influencing factors, the extraction process focusing on the DPPH· scavenging capacity of antioxidants was optimized using RSM. Results showed that the optimal conditions for antioxidant extraction were 13.03:1 (mL/g) liquid-solid ratio, 16.86 min extraction time and 40.51% (v/v) ethanol, and the desirability was 0.681. The UPLC-ESI-MS analysis results revealed eleven kinds of phenolic compounds, including four major rare anthocyanins, among the antioxidants. All these results suggest that UAE is efficient at extracting antioxidants and has the potential to be used in industry for this purpose.

Concepts: PH, Operations research, Fruit, Resveratrol, Anthocyanin, Sumac, Rhus typhina, Rhus

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Alternative medicine and herbal drugs have been taken into account for managing cardiovascular risk factors. Sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) is rich in biologically active ingredients known to improve cardiovascular health. We investigated the effect of sumac on systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), body mass index (BMI), and serum concentrations of lipids and fasting blood sugar (FBS) in participants with hyperlipidemia in a triple-blind randomized placebo- controlled crossover trial.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Medicine, Clinical trial, Blood, Blood pressure, Body mass index, Clinical research, Sumac

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Staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina) is native to North America, and has been used by indigenous peoples for food and non-food applications for a long time. It has been adapted to the other parts of the world for cultivation as a potential source of functional food ingredients. This review summarises the updated information on the chemical composition and diverse biological activities of staghorn sumac. Various factors affect the chemical composition, function retention during processing, and nutritional properties of staghorn sumac-derived products. These factors include botanical characteristics and environmental conditions, extraction and quantification methods, and processing parameters. Various innovative and potential uses of staghorn sumac in food, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries are suggested on the basis of the chemical constituents. This review provides a scientific basis for the development of staghorn sumac as a sustainable economic plant for food and other industries.

Concepts: Nutrition, United States, Fruit, North America, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Sumac, Rhus typhina, Rhus

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Staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina) is rich in polyphenols and may be used as an innovative ingredient in maintaining and enhancing food quality. In this report, aqueous extracts of sumac fruit powder were added up to 10% in wheat bread formulation. The extract concentration-dependently delayed the mold growth (up to 5 log reduction in 7-day storage) and the staling of bread. Adding sumac extracts dose-dependently increased the total phenolic and anthocyanin contents of the breads. Minimal changes were observed in loaf volume, water activity, moisture content, texture (cohesiveness, springiness and adhesive) and aroma of breads containing extracts of less than 4%. Overall, sumac addition altered several quality attributes of bread, including hardness, color, and sensory acceptance in appearance, flavor, and texture. Sumac holds potential as a natural preservative and an anti-staling agent in bread formulation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Wheat, Fruit, Bread, Food science, Copyright, Sumac, Rhus typhina, Rhus

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Homeopathic remedy Rhus toxicodendron (Rhus tox) is used for several symptoms including skin irritations, rheumatic pains, mucous membrane afflictions, and typhoid type fever. Previously, we reported that Rhus tox treatment increased the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression in primary cultured mouse chondrocytes.

Concepts: Inflammation, Gene, Irritation, Sumac, Poison ivy, Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis, Urushiol, Toxicodendron

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Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel and sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) fruit and leaf extracts were chemically characterized and their ability to inhibit table grape (cv. Italia) rots caused by Botrytis cinerea was evaluated on artificially inoculated berries. Different extraction methods were applied and extracts were characterized through Ultra Fast High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Photodiode array detector and Electrospray ionization Mass spectrometer (UPLC-PDA-ESI/MSn) for their phenol and anthocyanin contents. The concentrated pomegranate peel extract (PGE-C) was the richest in phenols (66.97 g gallic acid equivalents/kg) while the concentrated sumac extract from fruits (SUF-C) showed the highest anthocyanin amount (171.96 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/kg). Both phenolic and anthocyanin profile of pomegranate and sumac extracts were quite different: pomegranate extract was rich in cyanidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-glucoside and ellagic acid derivatives, while sumac extract was characterized by 7-methyl-cyanidin 3-galactoside and gallic acid derivatives. The concentrated extracts from both pomegranate peel and sumac leaves significantly reduced the development of Botrytis rots. In particular, the extract from pomegranate peel completely inhibited the pathogen at different intervals of time (0, 12, and 24 h) between treatment and pathogen inoculation on fruits maintained at 22-24 °C and high relative humidity (RH). This extract may represent a valuable alternative to control postharvest fungal rots in view of its high efficacy because of the low cost of pomegranate peel, which is a waste product of processing factories.

Concepts: Mass spectrometry, Humidity, Relative humidity, Fruit, Tannin, Pomegranate, Raspberry, Sumac

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Vegetation management often involves shredding to dispose of cut plant material or to destroy the vegetation itself. In the case of invasive plants, this can represent an environmental risk if the shredded material exhibits vegetative regeneration capacities. We tested the effect of shredding on aboveground and below-ground vegetative material of five ornamental widespread invaders in Western Europe that are likely to be managed by cutting and shredding techniques: Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush, Scrophulariaceae), Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed, Polygonaceae), Spiraea × billardii Hérincq (Billard’s bridewort, Rosaceae), Solidago gigantea (giant goldenrod, Asteraceae), and Rhus typhina L. (staghorn sumac, Anacardiaceae). We looked at signs of vegetative regeneration and biomass production, and analyzed the data with respect to the season of plant cutting (spring vs summer), the type of plant material (aboveground vs below-ground), and the shredding treatment (shredded vs control). All species were capable of vegetative regeneration, especially the below-ground material. We found differences among species, but the regeneration potential was generally still present after shredding despite a reduction of growth rates. Although it should not be excluded in all cases (e.g., destruction of giant goldenrod and staghorn sumac aboveground material), the use of a shredder to destroy woody alien plant material cannot be considered as a general management option without significant environmental risk.

Concepts: Fruit, Fallopia, Polygonaceae, Japanese knotweed, Weed, Sumac, Rhus typhina, Rhus

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Rhus parviflora (Anacardiaceae) is an indigenous medicinal shrub found in South Asia with flavonoid rich edible fruit. This study examined flavonoid derivatives of R. parviflora fruit with CDK5/p25 inhibition activity. Evaluation by in vitro assay and docking simulations for CDK5/p25 revealed that the aurones, sulfuretin (1) and aureusidin (2), the aurone glycoside, aureusidin-6-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3) and hovetrichoside C (4), the flavonoid glycoside, quercetin-3-O-β-d-galactopyranoside (5), and the biflavonoid, cupressuflavone (6), had the potential to inhibit CDK5/p25, which could be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. Compound2 showed the significant in vitro inhibition capacity (IC50 value of 4.81μM) as well as binding affinity with docking energy of -8.73 (kcal/mol) for active sites CYS83 and GLN130 of CDK5/p25 enzyme in comparison to reference compound R-roscovitine.

Concepts: Neurology, Neurodegenerative disorders, Enzyme inhibitor, Inhibitor, Xanthine oxidase inhibitor, Sumac, Aurones, Aureusidin