SciCombinator

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Concept: Sulfur dioxide

112

This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between fine particle (PM2.5) levels and daily clinic visits for migraine in Taipei, Taiwan. Daily clinic visits for migraine and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period from 2006-2011. The odds ratio of clinic visits was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. Generally, no significant associations between PM2.5 levels and migraine visits were observed on cool days. On warm days, however, for the single pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants), increased clinic visits for migraine were significantly associated with PM2.5 levels, with an interquartile range (IQR) rise associated with a 13% (95% CI = 8%-19%) elevation in number of migraine visits. In bi-pollutant model, PM2.5 remained significant after the inclusion of sulfur dioxide (SO2) or ozone (O3) on warm days. This study provides evidence that higher levels of PM2.5 increase the risk of clinic visits for migraine in Taipei, Taiwan.

Concepts: United States Environmental Protection Agency, Particulate, Smog, Sulfuric acid, Air pollution, Volcano, Sulfur dioxide, Ozone

95

Severe haze is a major public health concern in China and India. Both countries rely heavily on coal for energy, and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted from coal-fired power plants and industry is a major pollutant contributing to their air quality problems. Timely, accurate information on SO2 sources is a required input to air quality models for pollution prediction and mitigation. However, such information has been difficult to obtain for these two countries, as fast-paced changes in economy and environmental regulations have often led to unforeseen emission changes. Here we use satellite observations to show that China and India are on opposite trajectories for sulfurous pollution. Since 2007, emissions in China have declined by 75% while those in India have increased by 50%. With these changes, India is now surpassing China as the world’s largest emitter of anthropogenic SO2. This finding, not predicted by emission scenarios, suggests effective SO2 control in China and lack thereof in India. Despite this, haze remains severe in China, indicating the importance of reducing emissions of other pollutants. In India, ~33 million people now live in areas with substantial SO2 pollution. Continued growth in emissions will adversely affect more people and further exacerbate morbidity and mortality.

Concepts: Oxygen, Pollution, Sulfur, Pyrite, Smog, Volcano, Sulfur dioxide, Acid rain

61

The roots of the “shy plant” Mimosa pudica L. emit a cocktail of small organic and inorganic sulfur compounds into the environment, including SO2, methylsulfinic acid, pyruvic acid, lactic acid, ethanesulfinic acid, propane sulfinic acid, 2-mercaptoaniline, S-propyl propane 1-thiosulfinate, and thioformaldehyde, an elusive and highly unstable compound never before reported to be emitted by a plant. When soil around the roots is dislodged or when seedling roots are touched, an odor is detected. The perceived odor corresponds to emission of higher amounts of propanesulfenic acid, 2-mercaptoaniline, S-propyl propane 1-thiosulfinate, and phenothiazine. The mechanosensitivity response is selective. Whereas touching the roots with soil or human skin resulted in odor detection, agitating the roots with other materials such as glass did not induce a similar response. Light and electron microscopy studies revealed the presence of microscopic sac-like root protuberances. Elemental analysis of these hairs by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed them to contain higher levels of K+ and Cl- compared to the surrounding tissue. Exposing the hairs to stimuli that caused in odor emission resulted in a reduction in the levels of K+ and Cl- in the touched area. The mechanistic implications of the variety of sulfur compounds observed vis-à-vis the pathways for their formation are discussed.

Concepts: Oxygen, Bacteria, Chemical element, Skin, Sulfur, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Sulfur dioxide, Mimosa pudica

43

The lower cloud layer of Venus (47.5-50.5 km) is an exceptional target for exploration due to the favorable conditions for microbial life, including moderate temperatures and pressures (∼60°C and 1 atm), and the presence of micron-sized sulfuric acid aerosols. Nearly a century after the ultraviolet (UV) contrasts of Venus' cloud layer were discovered with Earth-based photographs, the substances and mechanisms responsible for the changes in Venus' contrasts and albedo are still unknown. While current models include sulfur dioxide and iron chloride as the UV absorbers, the temporal and spatial changes in contrasts, and albedo, between 330 and 500 nm, remain to be fully explained. Within this context, we present a discussion regarding the potential for microorganisms to survive in Venus' lower clouds and contribute to the observed bulk spectra. In this article, we provide an overview of relevant Venus observations, compare the spectral and physical properties of Venus' clouds to terrestrial biological materials, review the potential for an iron- and sulfur-centered metabolism in the clouds, discuss conceivable mechanisms of transport from the surface toward a more habitable zone in the clouds, and identify spectral and biological experiments that could measure the habitability of Venus' clouds and terrestrial analogues. Together, our lines of reasoning suggest that particles in Venus' lower clouds contain sufficient mass balance to harbor microorganisms, water, and solutes, and potentially sufficient biomass to be detected by optical methods. As such, the comparisons presented in this article warrant further investigations into the prospect of biosignatures in Venus' clouds. Key Words: Venus-Clouds-Life-Habitability-Microorganism-Albedo-Spectroscopy-Biosignatures-Aerosol-Sulfuric Acid. Astrobiology 18, xxx-xxx.

Concepts: Oxygen, Bacteria, Sulfur, Sulfuric acid, Microorganism, Sulfur dioxide, Venus, Planetary habitability

38

The global flux of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted by passive volcanic degassing is a key parameter that constrains the fluxes of other volcanic gases (including carbon dioxide, CO2) and toxic trace metals (e.g., mercury). It is also a required input for atmospheric chemistry and climate models, since it impacts the tropospheric burden of sulfate aerosol, a major climate-forcing species. Despite its significance, an inventory of passive volcanic degassing is very difficult to produce, due largely to the patchy spatial and temporal coverage of ground-based SO2 measurements. We report here the first volcanic SO2 emissions inventory derived from global, coincident satellite measurements, made by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA’s Aura satellite in 2005-2015. The OMI measurements permit estimation of SO2 emissions from over 90 volcanoes, including new constraints on fluxes from Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, the Aleutian Islands, the Kuril Islands and Kamchatka. On average over the past decade, the volcanic SO2 sources consistently detected from space have discharged a total of ~63 kt/day SO2 during passive degassing, or ~23 ± 2 Tg/yr. We find that ~30% of the sources show significant decadal trends in SO2 emissions, with positive trends observed at multiple volcanoes in some regions including Vanuatu, southern Japan, Peru and Chile.

Concepts: Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Sulfur, Pacific Ocean, Papua New Guinea, Volcano, Sulfur dioxide, Pacific Ring of Fire

29

Atmospheric oxidation is a key phenomenon that connects atmospheric chemistry with globally challenging environmental issues, such as climate change, stratospheric ozone loss, acidification of soils and water, and health effects of air quality. Ozone, the hydroxyl radical and the nitrate radical are generally considered to be the dominant oxidants that initiate the removal of trace gases, including pollutants, from the atmosphere. Here we present atmospheric observations from a boreal forest region in Finland, supported by laboratory experiments and theoretical considerations, that allow us to identify another compound, probably a stabilized Criegee intermediate (a carbonyl oxide with two free-radical sites) or its derivative, which has a significant capacity to oxidize sulphur dioxide and potentially other trace gases. This compound probably enhances the reactivity of the atmosphere, particularly with regard to the production of sulphuric acid, and consequently atmospheric aerosol formation. Our findings suggest that this new atmospherically relevant oxidation route is important relative to oxidation by the hydroxyl radical, at least at moderate concentrations of that radical. We also find that the oxidation chemistry of this compound seems to be tightly linked to the presence of alkenes of biogenic origin.

Concepts: Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Redox, Radical, Atmosphere, Sulfur dioxide, Ozone layer, Ozone

28

Sulfites are routinely added as preservatives and antioxidants in wine production. By law, the total sulfur dioxide content in wine is restricted and therefore must be monitored. Currently, the method of choice for determining the total content of sulfur dioxide in wine is the optimised Monier-Williams method, which is time consuming and laborious. The headspace gas chromatographic method described in this study offers a fast and reliable alternative method for the detection and quantification of the sulfur dioxide content in wine. The analysis was performed using an automatic headspace injection sampler, coupled with a gas chromatograph and an electron capture detector. The method is based on the formation of gaseous sulfur dioxide subsequent to acidification and heating of the sample. In addition to free sulfur dioxide, reversibly bound sulfur dioxide in carbonyl compounds, such as acetaldehyde, was also measured with this method. A total of 20 wine samples produced using diverse grape varieties and vintages of varied provenance were analysed using the new method. For reference and comparison purposes, 10 of the results obtained by the proposed method were compared with those acquired by the optimised Monier-Williams method. Overall, the results from the headspace analysis showed good correlation (R = 0.9985) when compared with the conventional method. This new method requires minimal sample preparation and is simple to perform, and the analysis can also be completed within a short period of time.

Concepts: Oxygen, Chromatography, Gas chromatography, Wine, Sulfur dioxide, Sulfite, Electron capture detector, Chromatography software

28

BACKGROUND: Green catalyst Fly-ash: H2SO4 was prepared by mixing Fly-ash and sulphuric acid. Microwave irradiations is applied for solid phase cyclization of 5-bromo-2-thienyl chalcones and phenyl hydrazine hydrate in presence of Fly-ash:H2SO4 yields 1-phenyl-3(5-bromothiophen-2-yl)-5-(substituted phenyl)-2-pyrazolines. These pyrazolines were characterized by their physical constants and spectral data. The antimicrobial activities of all synthesized pyrazolines have been studied. RESULTS: The SEM analysis shows the morphology changes between fly-ash and the catalyst Fly-ash: H2SO4. The SEM Photographs with the scale of 1 and 50 mum shows the fly-sh particle is corroded by H2SO4 (indicated by arrow mark) and this may be due to dissolution of Fly-ash by H2SO4. The yields of 1-phenyl-3(5-bromothiophen-2-yl)-5-(substituted phenyl)-2-pyrazolines is more than 90% using this catalyst under microwave heating. All pyrazolines showed a moderate activities against antimicrobial a strains. CONCLUSION: We have developed an efficient catalytic method for synthesis of 1-phenyl-3(5-bromothiophen-2-yl)-5-(substituted phenyl)-2-pyrazolines by solid phase cyclization using a solvent free environmentally greener catalyst fly-ash: H2SO4 under microwave irradiation between aryl chalcones and hydrazine hydrate. This reaction protocol offers a simple, economical, environmentally friendly, non-hazards, easier work-up procedure and good yields. All synthesized pyrazoline derivatives showed a moderate antimicrobial activities against their strains.

Concepts: Environment, Chemical reaction, Catalysis, Sulfur, Sulfuric acid, Sulfur dioxide, Environmentally friendly, Hydrazine

27

Using dendroisotopic techniques, we show the recovery of Juniperus virginiana L. (eastern red cedar) trees in the Central Appalachian Mountains from decades of acidic pollution. Acid deposition over much of the 20th century reduced stomatal conductance of leaves, thereby increasing intrinsic water-use efficiency of the Juniperus trees. These data indicate that the stomata of Juniperus may be more sensitive to acid deposition than to increasing atmospheric CO2. A breakpoint in the 100-y δ(13)C tree ring chronology occurred around 1980, as the legacy of sulfur dioxide emissions declined following the enactment of the Clean Air Act in 1970, indicating a gradual increase in stomatal conductance (despite rising levels of atmospheric CO2) and a concurrent increase in photosynthesis related to decreasing acid deposition and increasing atmospheric CO2. Tree ring δ(34)S shows a synchronous change in the sources of sulfur used at the whole-tree level that indicates a reduced anthropogenic influence. The increase in growth and the δ(13)C and δ(34)S trends in the tree ring chronology of these Juniperus trees provide evidence for a distinct physiological response to changes in atmospheric SO2 emissions since ∼1980 and signify the positive impacts of landmark environmental legislation to facilitate recovery of forest ecosystems from acid deposition.

Concepts: Photosynthesis, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Sulfur, Sulfuric acid, Sulfur dioxide, Acid rain, Dendrochronology

26

Maternal exposure to ambient pollution has been increasingly linked to the risk of congenital anomalies (CAs) in the fetus and newborns. Recently, a descriptive study in the high environmental risk city of Brindisi (Italy) revealed an increased prevalence of total CAs, especially congenital heart disease (CHD) and ventricular septal defects (VSDs), both at the local level and in comparison with the pool of EUROCAT registries. This paper concerns a population-based case control study to investigate the association between maternal exposure to air pollutants - sulfur dioxide (SO2) and total suspended particulate (TSP) matter - and the risk of CA. Cases were newborns up to 28 days of age, born to mothers resident in Brindisi between 2001 and 2010, and discharged with a diagnosis of CA. Cases and controls were individually matched according to sex, socio-economic status of the census area of residence of the mother, and year of beginning of pregnancy. Up to four controls were extracted for each case. Concentration data from monitoring stations were used to estimate air pollution exposure. Each case and control was assigned pollutant concentration values as mean and 90th percentile of the daily average values during weeks 3-8 of pregnancy. Exposure as both continuous and categorical variables was considered and a conditional logistic regression model was constructed to quantify the odds ratios of exposure to air pollutants and the occurrence of total CAs, CHDs and VSDs. We found exposure to the 90th percentile of SO2 to be associated with CHDs (p for trend =0.01) and VSDs (p for trend <0.05). Findings for TSP were less consistent. In conclusion, in the studied area, maternal exposure to sulfur dioxide increased risk of CHD.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Pollution, Case-control study, Smog, Air pollution, Sulfur dioxide, Acid rain