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Concept: Suicidal ideation

117

Several original studies have investigated the effect of alcohol use disorder (AUD) on suicidal thought and behavior, but there are serious discrepancies across the studies. Thus, a systematic assessment of the association between AUD and suicide is required.

Concepts: Mental disorder, Bipolar disorder, Suicide, Parasuicide, Suicidal ideation

95

US and UK suicide prevention strategies suggest that bereavement by the suicide of a relative or friend is a risk factor for suicide. However, evidence is lacking that the risk exceeds that of any sudden bereavement, is specific to suicide, or applies to peer suicide. We conducted the first controlled UK-wide study to test the hypothesis that young adults bereaved by suicide have an increased risk of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt compared with young adults bereaved by other sudden deaths.

Concepts: Death, Sociology, Bipolar disorder, Suicide, Parasuicide, Peer-to-peer, American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, Suicidal ideation

21

Suicidal thoughts and behaviors among youths are important public health concerns in Utah, where the suicide rate among youths consistently exceeds the national rate and has been increasing for nearly a decade (1). In March 2017, CDC was invited to assist the Utah Department of Health (UDOH) with an investigation to characterize the epidemiology of fatal and nonfatal suicidal behaviors and identify risk and protective factors associated with these behaviors, among youths aged 10-17 years. This report presents findings related to nonfatal suicidal behaviors among Utah youths. To examine the prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts among Utah youths and evaluate risk and protective factors, data from the 2015 Utah Prevention Needs Assessment survey were analyzed. Among 27,329 respondents in grades 8, 10, and 12, 19.6% reported suicidal ideation and 8.2% reported suicide attempts in the preceding 12 months. Significant risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempts included being bullied, illegal substance or tobacco use in the previous month, and psychological distress. A significant protective factor for suicidal ideation and attempts was a supportive family environment. UDOH, local health departments, and other stakeholders are using these findings to develop tailored suicide prevention strategies that address multiple risk and protective factors for suicidal ideation and attempts. Resources such as CDC’s Preventing Suicide: A Technical Package of Policy, Programs, and Practices (2) can help states and communities identify strategies and approaches using the best available evidence to prevent suicide, which include tailored strategies for youths.

Concepts: Public health, Epidemiology, Prevention, Bipolar disorder, Suicide, Parasuicide, American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, Suicidal ideation

13

The purpose of this study is to explore how the associations between importance of religion and recent suicide ideation, recent suicide attempt, and lifetime suicide attempt vary by sexual orientation.

Concepts: Meaning of life, Bipolar disorder, Suicide, Parasuicide, Suicidal ideation

11

The risk factors of suicidal ideation and attempts have been discussed in many researches. Few studies have examined reasons for living and hope as protective factors against suicide in a clinical population. It is unclear if these factors help to reduce suicide rates in patients with depression. The study aimed to assess the role of reasons for living and hope in the identification and reduction of suicidality and explore the influence of reasons for living or hope in the transition from suicidal ideation to suicide attempts.

Concepts: Death, Schizophrenia, Bipolar disorder, Major depressive disorder, Self-harm, Suicide, Parasuicide, Suicidal ideation

9

In 2015, suicide was the third leading cause of death among persons aged 10-17 years (1), and in Utah, the age-adjusted suicide rate was consistently higher than the national rate during the past decade (2). In January 2017, the Utah Department of Health (UDOH) invited CDC to assist with an epidemiologic investigation of suicides among youths aged 10-17 years during 2011-2015 to identify precipitating factors. CDC analyzed data from the Utah Violent Death Reporting System (UTVDRS), National Vital Statistics System, and additional information collected in the field. During 2011-2015 in Utah, 150 youths died by suicide. Approximately three fourths of decedents were male (77.4%) and aged 15-17 years (75.4%). During this period, the unadjusted suicide rate per 100,000 youths in Utah increased 136.2%, from 4.7 per 100,000 population (2011) to 11.1 (2015), whereas among youths nationwide, the rate increased 23.5%, from 3.4 to 4.1. Among suicide decedents with circumstances data available, more than two thirds (68.3%) had multiple precipitating circumstances, including mental health diagnosis (35.2%), depressed mood (31.0%), recent crisis (55.3%), and history of suicidal ideation or attempt (29.6%). CDC’s technical package of policies, programs, and practices to prevent suicide supported by the best available evidence can be used as a suicide prevention resource (3).

Concepts: Epidemiology, Death, Demography, Mental disorder, Bipolar disorder, Major depressive disorder, Suicide, Suicidal ideation

8

IMPORTANCE Peer victimization is related to an increased chance of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation or suicide attempts using meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science were searched for articles from 1910 to 2013. The search terms were bully*, teas*, victim*, mobbing, ragging, and harassment in combination with the term suic*. Of the 491 studies identified, 34 reported on the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation, with a total of 284 375 participants. Nine studies reported on the relationship between peer victimization and suicide attempts, with a total of 70 102 participants. STUDY SELECTION Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported an effect size on the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation or suicide attempt in children or adolescents. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Two observers independently coded the effect sizes from the articles. Data were pooled using a random effects model. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES This study focused on suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Peer victimization was hypothesized to be related to suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. RESULTS Peer victimization was found to be related to both suicidal ideation (odds ratio, 2.23 [95% CI, 2.10-2.37]) and suicide attempts (2.55 [1.95 -3.34]) among children and adolescents. Analyses indicated that these results were not attributable to publication bias. Results were not moderated by sex, age, or study quality. Cyberbullying was more strongly related to suicidal ideation compared with traditional bullying. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Peer victimization is a risk factor for child and adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. Schools should use evidence-based practices to reduce bullying.

Concepts: Medical statistics, Effect size, Meta-analysis, Abuse, Suicide, Parasuicide, Bullying, Suicidal ideation

6

Childhood adversity predicts adolescent suicidal ideation but there are few studies examining whether the risk of childhood adversity extends to suicidal ideation in midlife. We hypothesized that childhood adversity predicts midlife suicidal ideation and this is partially mediated by adolescent internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders and adult exposure to life events and interpersonal difficulties.

Concepts: Suicidal ideation

4

To estimate the prevalence of self-harm, suicidal ideation (SI), and suicide attempts (SA) in older adults in the emergency department (ED), including differences according to age, sex, and race and ethnicity.

Concepts: Psychology, Death, Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, Bipolar disorder, Major depressive disorder, Suicide, Parasuicide, Suicidal ideation

3

Only one-third of young people who experience suicidal ideation attempt suicide. It is important to identify factors which differentiate those who attempt suicide from those who experience suicidal ideation but do not act on these thoughts.

Concepts: Cohort study, Cohort, Bipolar disorder, Body dysmorphic disorder, Suicide, Parasuicide, Young, Suicidal ideation