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Concept: Subtype polymorphism


Cholinergic urticaria (CU) has clinically characteristic features, and has been frequently described in the literature. However, despite its comparatively old history, the pathogenesis and classification remains to be clarified. CU patients are occasionally complicated by anhidrosis and/or hypohidrosis. This reduced-sweat type should be included in the classification because the therapeutic approaches are different from the ordinary CU. It is also well-known that autologous sweat is involved in the occurrence of CU. More than half of CU patients may have sweat hypersensitivity. We attempt to classify CU and address the underlying mechanisms of CU based on the published data and our findings. The first step for classification of CU seems to discriminate the presence or absence of hypersensitivity to autologous sweat. The second step is proposed to determine whether the patients can sweat normally or not. With these data, the patients could be categorized into three subtypes: (1) CU with sweat hypersensitivity; (2) CU with acquired anhidrosis and/or hypohidrosis; (3) idiopathic CU. The pathogenesis of each subtype is also discussed in this review.

Concepts: Medical terms, Perspiration, Hyperhidrosis, Type theory, Polymorphism in object-oriented programming, Subtype polymorphism, Cholinergic urticaria


The identification and surveillance of patients with preneoplastic lesions at high risk of progressing to gastric cancer (GC) represents the most effective way of reducing the burden of GC. The incomplete type of intestinal metaplasia (IM) could be considered as the best candidate for surveillance. However, the usefulness of subtyping of IM has been considered by some authors as limited and inconsistent. A search was carried out to identify all cross-sectional (n= 14) and follow-up (n= 10) studies that assessed the risk of GC among subjects with different types of IM. Out of the 14 cross-sectional studies, 13 reported that the prevalence of incomplete IM was statistically significantly higher in GC than in other gastric lesions. Out of the 10 follow-up studies, 6 found a statistically significant association between incomplete IM and subsequent GC risk. The relative risks of GC were from 4 to 11-fold higher for the presence of incomplete type in comparison to complete type or in comparison to the absence of incomplete type, among the studies that reported the magnitude of the risk. According to this comprehensive review, most of the scientific evidence supports the utility of subtyping IM as a predictor of GC risk. Recognizing its usefulness by gastroenterologists should encourage pathologists to subtype IM. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Concepts: Scientific method, Epidemiology, Decision theory, First-order logic, Risk aversion, Type theory, Polymorphism in object-oriented programming, Subtype polymorphism


Global inequalities in access to health care are reflected in differences in cancer survival. The CONCORD programme was designed to assess worldwide differences and trends in population-based cancer survival. In this population-based study, we aimed to estimate survival inequalities globally for several subtypes of childhood leukaemia.

Concepts: Health care, Health, Cancer, Child, Massachusetts, Globalization, Subtype polymorphism, Anarchism


Asthma is a heterogeneous syndrome with different clinical subtypes that is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We hypothesized that the late-onset subtype of asthma is associated with a higher risk of incident CVD.

Concepts: Medicine, Epidemiology, The Canon of Medicine, Cardiovascular disease, Actuarial science, Subtype polymorphism


To determine characteristics of the peritumoral pseudocapsule (PC) between renal tumor subtypes.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Anatomical pathology, Subtype polymorphism


Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is one of the most common subtypes of soft tissue sarcoma in adults and can occur in almost any part of the body. Uterine leiomyosarcoma is the most common subtype of uterine sarcoma. Increased awareness of this unique histology has allowed for the development of drugs that are specific to LMS and has begun to shed light on the similarities and possible unique aspects of soft tissue and uterine LMS. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, genomics, and treatment options for LMS.

Concepts: Cancer, Biology, Soft tissue sarcoma, Tissues, Soft tissue, The Current, Subtype polymorphism, Leiomyosarcoma


Molecular stratification of tumors is essential for developing personalized therapies. Although patient stratification strategies have been successful; computational methods to accurately translate the gene-signature from high-throughput platform to a clinically adaptable low-dimensional platform are currently lacking. Here, we describe PIGExClass (platform-independent isoform-level gene-expression based classification-system), a novel computational approach to derive and then transfer gene-signatures from one analytical platform to another. We applied PIGExClass to design a reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) based molecular-subtyping assay for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most aggressive primary brain tumors. Unsupervised clustering of TCGA (the Cancer Genome Altas Consortium) GBM samples, based on isoform-level gene-expression profiles, recaptured the four known molecular subgroups but switched the subtype for 19% of the samples, resulting in significant (P = 0.0103) survival differences among the refined subgroups. PIGExClass derived four-class classifier, which requires only 121 transcript-variants, assigns GBM patients' molecular subtype with 92% accuracy. This classifier was translated to an RT-qPCR assay and validated in an independent cohort of 206 GBM samples. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of PIGExClass in the design of clinically adaptable molecular subtyping assay and have implications for developing robust diagnostic assays for cancer patient stratification.

Concepts: DNA, Oncology, Polymerase chain reaction, Molecular biology, Brain tumor, Glioblastoma multiforme, GBM, Subtype polymorphism


The diffuse-type gastric cancer (DGC) is a subtype of gastric cancer with the worst prognosis and few treatment options. Here we present a dataset from 84 DGC patients, composed of a proteome of 11,340 gene products and mutation information of 274 cancer driver genes covering paired tumor and nearby tissue. DGC can be classified into three subtypes (PX1-3) based on the altered proteome alone. PX1 and PX2 exhibit dysregulation in the cell cycle and PX2 features an additional EMT process; PX3 is enriched in immune response proteins, has the worst survival, and is insensitive to chemotherapy. Data analysis revealed four major vulnerabilities in DGC that may be targeted for treatment, and allowed the nomination of potential immunotherapy targets for DGC patients, particularly for those in PX3. This dataset provides a rich resource for information and knowledge mining toward altered signaling pathways in DGC and demonstrates the benefit of proteomic analysis in cancer molecular subtyping.

Concepts: Immune system, DNA, Protein, Cancer, Chemotherapy, Data, Proteomics, Subtype polymorphism


Parkinson’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with reduced spatial and verbal working memory ability. There are two established motor subtypes of PD, tremor dominant (TD) and postural instability and gait difficulty (PIGD). This study used structural equation modelling to explore the longitudinal relationship between the two subtypes and working memory assessed at a 2-year follow-up. The study comprised 84 males and 30 females (N = 114), aged between 39 and 85 (M = 64.82, SD = 9.23) with confirmed PD. There was no significant relationship between motor subtype at Time 1 and working memory at Time 2. Postural symptom severity at Time 1 predicted Time 2 spatial working memory for the PIGD subtype (p = .011) but not the TD subtype. Tremor symptoms were not associated with Time 2 working memory in either subtype. Predictive significance of Time 1 postural symptoms only in the PIGD subtype suggests an interaction between symptom dominance (subtype) and symptom severity that future subtyping should consider. This study demonstrates a predictive relationship between postural difficulties and working memory performance assessed at a 2-year follow-up. Establishing physical symptoms as predictors of cognitive change could have significant clinical importance.

Concepts: Disease, Prediction, Future, Neurology, Neurodegenerative disorders, Parkinson's disease, Working memory, Subtype polymorphism


An early report on the molecular subtyping of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) by gene expression suggested that response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) varies by subtype.

Concepts: DNA, Gene expression, Cancer, Molecular biology, Subtype polymorphism