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Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Style

63

Sleep problems are associated with increased risk of suicide, independent of depression. This analysis explores narrative accounts of the role of sleep in relation to suicidal thoughts and behaviours.

Concepts: Psychology, Sleep, Bipolar disorder, Depression, Suicide, Narrative, Style

50

Readers often describe vivid experiences of voices and characters in a manner that has been likened to hallucination. Little is known, however, of how common such experiences are, nor the individual differences they may reflect. Here we present the results of a 2014 survey conducted in collaboration with a national UK newspaper and an international book festival. Participants (n=1566) completed measures of reading imagery, inner speech, and hallucination-proneness, including 413 participants who provided detailed free-text descriptions of their reading experiences. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that reading imagery was related to phenomenological characteristics of inner speech and proneness to hallucination-like experiences. However, qualitative analysis of reader’s accounts suggested that vivid reading experiences were marked not just by auditory phenomenology, but also their tendency to cross over into non-reading contexts. This supports social-cognitive accounts of reading while highlighting a role for involuntary and uncontrolled personality models in the experience of fictional characters.

Concepts: Scientific method, Psychology, Fiction, Experience, Knowledge, Novel, Quantitative research, Style

27

Despite the recent evidence for a multi-component nature of both visual imagery and creativity, there have been no systematic studies on how the different dimensions of creativity and imagery might interrelate.

Concepts: Dimension, Cognition, Educational psychology, Graphic design, Style, Cognitive style

24

In order for a person to comprehend metaphoric expressions, do metaphor-irrelevant aspects of literal information need to be inhibited? Previous research using sentence-verification paradigms has found that literal associates take longer to process after reading metaphorical sentences; however, it is problematic to infer inhibition from this research. Moreover, previous work has not distinguished between familiar and novel metaphor processing. To test more directly for when inhibition may be required during metaphor processing, we performed 3 experiments using a metaphor-induced lexical forgetting paradigm. Participants initially learned word pairs where the cues were potential metaphoric vehicles and the targets were literal associates (e.g., SHARK-swim). Then, participants read half the vehicles as part of metaphorical sentences, which they interpreted (The lawyer for the defense is a shark). Subsequent forgetting of the literal associates was greater when vehicles had appeared in metaphorical sentences (Experiment 1) and was observed for both familiar and novel metaphors when participants were instructed to interpret the metaphors (Experiment 2) but was observed for only novel metaphors when participants were instructed to simply read the metaphors (Experiment 3). These results suggest that forgetting occurs as a result of inhibitory mechanisms that are engaged to alter activation of irrelevant literal information during metaphor processing, and that these mechanisms are most relevant for the processing demands associated with novel metaphors. (PsycINFO Database Record

Concepts: Fiction, Literature, Analogy, Metaphor, Style, George Orwell

24

This paper focuses on nano-enabled drug delivery systems (NDDS) in the context of cancer medicine. It regards NDDS as relational objects whose modes of existence are defined by their relationships with a complex biocultural environment that includes both the biological processes of our bodies and the values representations and metaphors our societies associate with cancer and cancer therapy. Within this framework the abundant use of war metaphors in NDDS - from ‘smart bombs’ to ‘magic nano-bullets’ - is discussed from various angles: in terms of therapeutic efficacy, it limits the potential of the technique by preventing the inclusion of the (patho)biological environment in the nanomedicine’s mode of action. In terms of development opportunities, the military strategy of active specific targeting faces cost and complexity bottlenecks. In terms of ethical values, it favors the questionable image of cancer patients as ‘fighters’. On the basis of these criticisms different metaphorical frameworks are suggested, in particular that of oïkos, whereby nanomedicine is reframed as a kind of domestic economy addressing the system-environment relationships of embodied processes with further imagination and care.

Concepts: Medicine, Oncology, Sociology, Therapy, Metaphysics, Complex system, Military, Style

21

Antismoking television advertisements that depict the graphic health harms of smoking are increasingly considered best practices, as exemplified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s current national campaign. Evaluation of responses to these widely used advertisements is important to determine advertisements that are most effective and their mechanisms of action. Our study tested the hypothesis that advertisements rated highest in fear- and disgust-eliciting imagery would be rated as the most effective.

Concepts: Scientific method, Public health, Clinical trial, Effect, Effectiveness, Best practice, Style, Infomercial

5

This article presents some of the emergent methods developed to fit a study of quality in inclusive research with people with learning disabilities. It addresses (i) the ways in which the methodology was a response to the need for constructive, transformative dialogue through use of repeated focus groups in a design interspersing dialogic and reflective spaces; and (ii) how stimulus materials for the focus groups involved imaginative and creative interactions with data. Particular innovations in the blending of narrative and thematic analyses and data generation and analysis processes are explored, specifically the creative use of metaphor as stimulus and the playful adaptation of I-poems from the Listening Guide approach as writing and performance. In reflecting on these methodological turns we also reflect on creativity as an interpretive lens. The paper is an invitation for further methodological dialogue and development.

Concepts: Scientific method, Evolutionary biology, Fiction, Educational psychology, Literature, Analogy, Creativity, Style

5

This study is based on people dying at home relying on the care of unpaid family carers. There is growing recognition of the central role that family carers play and the burdens that they bear, but knowledge gaps remain around how to best support them.

Concepts: Fiction, Play, Humanities, Character, Narrative, Narratology, Plot, Style

3

Emotion characterises learners' feedback experiences. While the failure-to-fail literature suggests that emotion may be important, little is known about the role of emotion for educators. Secondary analyses were therefore conducted on data exploring 110 trainers' and trainees' feedback experiences. Group and individual narrative interviews were conducted across three UK sites. We analysed 333 narratives for emotional talk using textual analysis: Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count. Furthermore, thematic framework analysis was conducted on the trainer narratives to explore aspects of feedback processes that are emotional. An additional in-depth little ’d' discourse analysis was conducted on selected trainer narratives to enable us to explore the complex relationship between the whats (reported events) and the hows (emotional talk). Trainer narratives did not differ significantly in positive or negative emotional talk from trainee narratives. By exploring the interplay of the whats and the hows, several aspects of feedback processes were identified as potentially emotional for trainers including trainers being concerned about upsetting learners and worried about patient safety. This was illustrated through numerous linguistic devices to establish emotional tone such as metaphoric talk and laughter. These findings suggest that feedback processes can be emotional for trainers. It highlights the need to better understand the ‘filter’ of emotion for trainers but also to better understand how emotion plays a role in feedback as a complex social process.

Concepts: Psychology, Fiction, Mathematical analysis, Linguistics, Knowledge, Discourse analysis, Narrative, Style

3

Although there is evidence of both clinical and personal recovery from distressing voices, the process of recovery over time is unclear. Narrative inquiry was used to investigate 11 voice-hearers' lived experience of recovery. After a period of despair/exhaustion, two recovery typologies emerged: (a) turning toward/empowerment, which involved developing a normalized account of voices, building voice-specific skills, integration of voices into daily life, and a transformation of identity, and (b) turning away/protective hibernation, which involved harnessing all available resources to survive the experience, with the importance of medication in recovery being emphasized. Results indicated the importance of services being sensitive and responsive to a person’s recovery style at any given time and their readiness for change. Coming to hold a normalized account of voice-hearing and the self and witnessing of preferred narratives by others were essential in the more robust turning toward recovery typology.

Concepts: Personality psychology, Recovery model, Narrative, Narratology, Style, Narrative poetry, Typology