Concept: Stroma of ovary
To evaluate the quality of preclinical evidence for mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) treatment of ischemic stroke, determine effect size of MSC therapy, and identify clinical measures that correlate with differences in MSC effects.
High-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOC) have been subdivided into molecular subtypes. The mesenchymal HGSOC subgroup, defined by stromal-related gene signatures, is invariably associated with poor patient survival. We demonstrate that stroma exerts a key function in mesenchymal HGSOC. We highlight stromal heterogeneity in HGSOC by identifying four subsets of carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAF-S1-4). Mesenchymal HGSOC show high content in CAF-S1 fibroblasts, which exhibit immunosuppressive functions by increasing attraction, survival, and differentiation of CD25+FOXP3+T lymphocytes. The beta isoform of the CXCL12 chemokine (CXCL12β) specifically accumulates in the immunosuppressive CAF-S1 subset through a miR-141/200a dependent-mechanism. Moreover, CXCL12β expression in CAF-S1 cells plays a crucial role in CAF-S1 immunosuppressive activity and is a reliable prognosis factor in HGSOC, in contrast to CXCL12α. Thus, our data highlight the differential regulation of the CXCL12α and CXCL12β isoforms in HGSOC, and reveal a CXCL12β-associated stromal heterogeneity and immunosuppressive environment in mesenchymal HGSOC.
Autologous cell transplantation is a promising strategy for repair of the injured spinal cord. Here we have studied the repair potential of mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from the human olfactory mucosa after transplantation into a rodent model of incomplete spinal cord injury. Investigation of peripheral type remyelination at the injury site using immunocytochemistry for P0, showed a more extensive distribution in transplanted compared with control animals. In addition to the typical distribution in the dorsal columns (common to all animals), in transplanted animals only, P0 immunolabelling was consistently detected in white matter lateral and ventral to the injury site. Transplanted animals also showed reduced cavitation. Several functional outcome measures including end-point electrophysiological testing of dorsal column conduction and weekly behavioural testing of BBB, weight bearing and pain, showed no difference between transplanted and control animals. However, gait analysis revealed an earlier recovery of co-ordination between forelimb and hindlimb stepping in transplanted animals. This improvement in gait may be associated with the enhanced myelination in ventral and lateral white matter, where fibre tracts important for locomotion reside. Autologous transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells from the olfactory mucosa may therefore be therapeutically beneficial in the treatment of spinal cord injury. GLIA 2017.
Remodeling of the collagen architecture in the extracellular matrix (ECM) has been implicated in ovarian cancer. To quantify these alterations we implemented a form of 3D texture analysis to delineate the fibrillar morphology observed in 3D Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy image data of normal (1) and high risk (2) ovarian stroma, benign ovarian tumors (3), low grade (4) and high grade (5) serous tumors, and endometrioid tumors (6). We developed a tailored set of 3D filters which extract textural features in the 3D image sets to build (or learn) statistical models of each tissue class. By applying k-nearest neighbor classification using these learned models, we achieved 83-91% accuracies for the six classes. The 3D method outperformed the analogous 2D classification on the same tissues, where we suggest this is due the increased information content. This classification based on ECM structural changes will complement conventional classification based on genetic profiles and can serve as an additional biomarker. Moreover, the texture analysis algorithm is quite general, as it does not rely on single morphological metrics such as fiber alignment, length, and width but their combined convolution with a customizable basis set.
The tumor microenvironment is emerging as a key regulator of cancer growth and progression, however the exact mechanisms of interaction with the tumor are poorly understood. Whilst the majority of genomic profiling efforts thus far have focused on the tumor, here we investigate RNA-Seq as a hypothesis-free tool to generate independent tumor and stromal biomarkers, and explore tumor-stroma interactions by exploiting the human-murine compartment specificity of patient-derived xenografts (PDX). Across a pan-cancer cohort of 79 PDX models, we determine that mouse stroma can be separated into distinct clusters, each corresponding to a specific stromal cell type. This implies heterogeneous recruitment of mouse stroma to the xenograft independent of tumor type. We then generate cross-species expression networks to recapitulate a known association between tumor epithelial cells and fibroblast activation, and propose a potentially novel relationship between two hypoxia-associated genes, human MIF and mouse Ddx6. Assessment of disease subtype also reveals MMP12 as a putative stromal marker of triple-negative breast cancer. Finally, we establish that our ability to dissect recruited stroma from trans-differentiated tumor cells is crucial to identifying stem-like poor-prognosis signatures in the tumor compartment. In conclusion, RNA-Seq is a powerful, cost-effective solution to global analysis of human tumor and mouse stroma simultaneously, providing new insights into mouse stromal heterogeneity and compartment-specific disease markers that are otherwise overlooked by alternative technologies. The study represents the first comprehensive analysis of its kind across multiple PDX models, and supports adoption of the approach in pre-clinical drug efficacy studies, and compartment-specific biomarker discovery.
Conventionally cultured mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (mBM-MSC) are a heterogeneous population that often initially contain contaminating haematopoietic cells. Variability in isolation methods, culture protocols and the lack of specific mBM MSC markers might explain this heterogeneity. The aim of this study is to optimise the isolation, culture conditions and selection of mBM-MSC.
Previous reports demonstrated a relationship between proliferation potential and trilineage differentiation in mesenchymal stromal cells- derived clones generated using plastic adherence (PA-MSCs). However, there are no reports presenting a clonal analysis of the proliferative potential, differentiation potential and allosuppressive effects of human mesenchymal stromal cell subsets. In this study, we perfomed a clonal analysis of mesenchymal stromal cells generated from human CD271+ bone marrow mononuclear cells (CD271-MSCs). After transfection with the gene encoding green fluorescent protein, the cells were single-cell sorted and cultured for 2-4 weeks. A population doubling analysis demonstrated that 25% of CD271-MSC clones are fast-proliferating clones compared to only 10% of PA-MSC clones. Evaluation of the allosuppressive potential demonstrated that 81.8% of CD271-MSC clones were highly allosuppressive compared to only 58% of PA-MSC clones. However, no consistent correlation was observed between allosuppression and proliferative potential. Prostaglandin E2 levels were positively correlated with the allosuppressive activity of individual clones, suggesting that this molecule may be a useful predictive biomarker for the allosuppressive potential of mesenchymal stromal cells. In contrast, inhibitory studies of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase indicated that none of the clones used this enzyme to mediate their allosuppressive effect. Differentiation studies revealed the presence of tripotent, bipotent and unipotent CD271-MSC and PA-MSC clones which suppressed the allogeneic reaction to differing extents in vitro. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate differences between CD271-MSCs and PA-MSCs and indicate that neither proliferation potential nor differentiation potential represents a consistent predictive parameter for the immunomodulatory effects of either type of mesenchymal stromal cells.
Stem cells and tissue-derived stromal cells stimulate the repair of degenerated and injured tissues, motivating a growing number of cell-based interventions in the musculoskeletal field. Recent investigations have indicated that these cells are critical for their trophic and immunomodulatory role in controlling endogenous cells. This Review presents recent clinical advances where stem cells and stromal cells have been used to stimulate musculoskeletal tissue repair, including delivery strategies to improve cell viability and retention. Emerging bioengineering strategies are highlighted, particularly toward the development of biomaterials for capturing aspects of the native tissue environment, altering the healing niche, and recruiting endogenous cells.
Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is one of the many unintended consequences of chemotherapy faced by the growing number of female cancer survivors. While ovarian repercussions of chemotherapy have long been recognized, the acute insult phase and primary sites of damage are not well-studied, hampering efforts to design effective intervention therapies to protect the ovary. Utilizing doxorubicin (DXR) as a model chemotherapy agent, we defined the acute timeline for drug accumulation, induced DNA damage, and subsequent cellular and follicular demise in the mouse ovary. DXR accumulated first in the core ovarian stroma cells, then redistributed outwards into the cortex and follicles in a time-dependent manner, without further increase in total ovarian drug levels after four hours post-injection. Consistent with early drug accumulation and intimate interactions with the blood supply, stroma cell-enriched populations exhibited an earlier DNA damage response (measurable at 2 hours) than granulosa cells (measurable at 4 hours), as quantified by the comet assay. Granulosa cell-enriched populations were more sensitive however, responding with greater levels of DNA damage. The oocyte DNA damage response was delayed, and not measurable above background until 10-12 hours post-DXR injection. By 8 hours post-DXR injection and prior to the oocyte DNA damage response, the number of primary, secondary, and antral follicles exhibiting TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling)-positive granulosa cells plateaued, indicating late-stage apoptosis and suggesting damage to the oocytes is subsequent to somatic cell failure. Primordial follicles accumulate significant DXR by 4 hours post-injection, but do not exhibit TUNEL-positive granulosa cells until 48 hours post-injection, indicating delayed demise. Taken together, the data suggest effective intervention therapies designed to protect the ovary from chemotherapy accumulation and induced insult in the ovary must act almost immediately to prevent acute insult as significant damage was seen in stroma cells within the first two hours.
Although stem cell transplantation has beneficial effects on tissue regeneration, but there are still problems such as high cost and safety issues. Since stem cell therapy is largely dependent on paracrine activity, in this study, utilization of transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs)-secretome instead of the cells, into damaged ovaries was evaluated to overcome the limitations of stem cell transplantation.