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Concept: Strauss and Howe


In the nationally representative General Social Survey, U.S. Adults (N = 33,380) in 2000-2012 (vs. the 1970s and 1980s) had more sexual partners, were more likely to have had sex with a casual date or pickup or an acquaintance, and were more accepting of most non-marital sex (premarital sex, teen sex, and same-sex sexual activity, but not extramarital sex). The percentage who believed premarital sex among adults was “not wrong at all” was 29 % in the early 1970s, 42 % in the 1980s and 1990s, 49 % in the 2000s, and 58 % between 2010 and 2012. Mixed effects (hierarchical linear modeling) analyses separating time period, generation/birth cohort, and age showed that the trend toward greater sexual permissiveness was primarily due to generation. Acceptance of non-marital sex rose steadily between the G.I. generation (born 1901-1924) and Boomers (born 1946-1964), dipped slightly among early Generation X'ers (born 1965-1981), and then rose so that Millennials (also known as Gen Y or Generation Me, born 1982-1999) were the most accepting of non-marital sex. Number of sexual partners increased steadily between the G.I.s and 1960s-born GenX'ers and then dipped among Millennials to return to Boomer levels. The largest changes appeared among White men, with few changes among Black Americans. The results were discussed in the context of growing cultural individualism and rejection of traditional social rules in the U.S.

Concepts: Marriage, Sexual intercourse, Human sexual behavior, Human sexuality, Generation Y, Strauss and Howe, Fornication, Adultery


Research has shown that if a mother experiences a transitory perturbation to her environment during pregnancy or lactation, there are transgenerational consequences often involving a disordered metabolic phenotype in first generation offspring with recovery across subsequent generations. In contrast, little is known about the nature of the transgenerational response of offspring when a mother experiences a perturbation that is not transitory but instead persists across generations. Our study, using a rat model, subjected the parental generation to a change in environment and concomitant shift from a grain-based to obesogenic diets to generate an adipose phenotype in first generation offspring emulating a common scenario in human urbanisation and migration. We then investigated whether the obese phenotype was stable across generations when maintained in the transitioned environment, and whether dietary macronutrient balance affected the response. We found that second and third generation offspring had a reduced body fat to lean mass ratio and a reduced appetite relative to first generation offspring, irrespective of dietary macronutrient balance. The trajectory of this response is suggestive of a reduction in chronic disease risk across generations. This is one of the first studies, to our knowledge, to investigate the transgenerational response following parental transition to a persistent obesogenic environment, and to demonstrate that successive generations respond differently to this constant environment.

Concepts: Nutrition, Obesity, Muscle, Fat, Adipose tissue, Mother, Leptin, Strauss and Howe


We examine differences in household specialization between same-sex and different-sex couples within and across three birth cohorts: Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y. Using three measures of household specialization, we find that same-sex couples are less likely than their different-sex counterparts to exhibit a high degree of specialization. However, the “specialization gap” between same-sex and different-sex couples narrows across birth cohorts. These findings are indicative of a cohort effect. Our results are largely robust to the inclusion of a control for the presence of children and for subsets of couples with and without children. We provide three potential explanations for why the specialization gap narrows across cohorts. First, different-sex couples from more recent birth cohorts may have become more like same-sex couples in terms of household specialization. Second, social and legal changes may have prompted a greater degree of specialization within same-sex couples relative to different-sex couples. Last, the advent of reproductive technologies, which made having children easier for same-sex couples from more recent birth cohorts, could result in more specialization in such couples relative to different-sex couples.

Concepts: Cohort study, Demographics, Advent, Baby boomer, Generation Y, Cultural generations, Strauss and Howe, Generation X


The millennial generation consists of today’s medical students, radiology residents, fellows, and junior staff. Millennials' comfort with immersive technology, high expectations for success, and desire for constant feedback differentiate them from previous generations. Drawing from an author’s experiences through radiology residency and fellowship as a millennial, from published literature, and from the mentorship of a long-time radiology educator, this article explores educational strategies that embrace these characteristics to engage today’s youngest generation both in and out of the reading room.

Concepts: Education, School, Teacher, Generation Y, Strauss and Howe, Generation X, Generation Z


Most students entering nursing programs today are members of Generation Y or the Millennial generation, and they learn differently than previous generations. Nurse educators must consider implementing innovative teaching strategies that appeal to the newest generation of learners. The Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle is a framework that can be helpful when planning, assessing, and continually improving teaching pedagogy. This article describes the use of iterative Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles to implement a change in teaching pedagogy.

Concepts: Education, Teacher, Pedagogy, Generation Y, Strauss and Howe, Generation X, Generation Z


This study sought to specify (1) the position of nonmedical prescription opioids (NMPO) in drug initiation sequences among Millennials (1979-96), Generation X (1964-79), and Baby Boomers (1949-64) and (2) gender and racial/ethnic differences in sequences among Millennials.

Concepts: Opioid, Demographics, Baby boomer, Generation Y, Generation, Cultural generations, Strauss and Howe, Generation X


The PA profession is 50 years young. Practicing PAs and current students hail from several generational categories ranging from Builders to Generation Z. This article reviews how different generations may have experienced PA program expansion, professional identity, state licensing, and prescription delegation. The authors sampled a cohort of PA program applicants about their views on what evokes optimism and concern for the PA profession. These themes mirror the recently paved professional road, while posing the all-important question: What construction lies on the horizon?

Concepts: Profession, Professional, Generation Y, Horizon, Generation, Strauss and Howe, Generation Z, Vivica A. Fox


Assigning attributes to a birth cohort is one way we identify society-wide, shared life experiences within a group collectively called a “generation.” Such assigned attributes influence society’s adoption of generation-based expectations held by and about people from a particular birth cohort. Census data and generational attributes inform perspectives on millennial generation birth cohort experiences and engagement as students. The eldest living generation in U.S. society has given way to 3 subsequent generations, the youngest of which is called the millennial generation. What generational attributes influence the effectiveness of teaching and learning between millennial learners and faculty members from other generations? Understanding the role of life cycle effects, period effects and cohort effects can offer medical and health professions educators' insights into different strategies for learner engagement. Discussion includes specific strategies and teaching tactics faculty members can use to engage millennials across a continuum of learning to bridge the “expectation gap.”

Concepts: Education, Knowledge, Generation Y, Generation, Strauss and Howe, Keith Jarrett, Generation X, Generation Z


Many feel that the generational differences encountered with Millennial trainees are novel; the reality is that prior generations have always bemoaned generational differences. This is not a new problem; some of the same things may even have been said about us during our own training! There are a variety of myths and misconceptions about the Millennial generation (also known as Generation Y). In this article we review some of the differences frequently encountered as we educate and work alongside our Millennial colleagues, dispelling some of the myths and misconceptions. With increased understanding of this talented group of individuals, we hope to be more effective teachers and have more successful professional relationships.

Concepts: Education, School, Teacher, Generation Y, Generation, Strauss and Howe, Generation X, Generation Z


Much has been written about teaching Millennials; however, little has been discussed about Generation Z-those just entering college. Nursing instructors must adapt to the upcoming generation’s mobile tech-savviness and self-directed learning, which often is accompanied by a lack of critical thinking skills. Teaching strategies and incorporating technology are highlighted. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2016;47(6):253-254.

Concepts: Critical thinking, Educational psychology, Skill, Thought, Learning, Generation Y, Strauss and Howe, Generation Z