Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Strategy


How to determine the community structure of complex networks is an open question. It is critical to establish the best strategies for community detection in networks of unknown structure. Here, using standard synthetic benchmarks, we show that none of the algorithms hitherto developed for community structure characterization perform optimally. Significantly, evaluating the results according to their modularity, the most popular measure of the quality of a partition, systematically provides mistaken solutions. However, a novel quality function, called Surprise, can be used to elucidate which is the optimal division into communities. Consequently, we show that the best strategy to find the community structure of all the networks examined involves choosing among the solutions provided by multiple algorithms the one with the highest Surprise value. We conclude that Surprise maximization precisely reveals the community structure of complex networks.

Concepts: Mathematics, Social sciences, 2006 albums, Strategy, Community, Complex network, Open problem, Community structure


Since women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to be physically inactive and engage in higher levels of sedentary behavior than women living in more advantaged neighborhoods, it is important to develop and test the feasibility of strategies aimed to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior amongst this high-risk target group. Thirty-seven women (aged 19-85) living in a disadvantaged neighborhood, and five key stakeholders, received a suite of potential intervention materials and completed a qualitative questionnaire assessing the perceived feasibility of strategies aimed to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior. Thematic analyses were performed. Women perceived the use of a locally-relevant information booklet as a feasible strategy to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior. Including weight-loss information was suggested to motivate women to be active. Half the women felt the best delivery method was mailed leaflets. Other suggestions included reference books and websites. Many women mentioned that an online activity calendar was motivational but too time-consuming to commit to. Most women preferred the information booklet as a strategy to increase physical activity/reduce sedentary behavior, yet several suggested that using the booklet together with the online calendar may be more effective. These findings make an important contribution to research informing the development of intervention strategies to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior amongst women living in disadvantaged neighborhoods.

Concepts: Psychology, Obesity, Educational psychology, English-language films, Qualitative research, Motivation, Strategy, Neighbourhood


Zero-determinant strategies are a new class of probabilistic and conditional strategies that are able to unilaterally set the expected payoff of an opponent in iterated plays of the Prisoner’s Dilemma irrespective of the opponent’s strategy (coercive strategies), or else to set the ratio between the player’s and their opponent’s expected payoff (extortionate strategies). Here we show that zero-determinant strategies are at most weakly dominant, are not evolutionarily stable, and will instead evolve into less coercive strategies. We show that zero-determinant strategies with an informational advantage over other players that allows them to recognize each other can be evolutionarily stable (and able to exploit other players). However, such an advantage is bound to be short-lived as opposing strategies evolve to counteract the recognition.

Concepts: Game theory, Evolution, Probability theory, Strategy, Players, Prisoner's dilemma, Nash equilibrium, Player


Current strategies to produce homogeneous antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) rely on mutations or inefficient conjugation chemistries. Here we present a strategy to produce site-specific ADCs using a highly reactive natural buried lysine embedded in a dual variable domain (DVD) format. This approach is mutation free and drug conjugation proceeds rapidly at neutral pH in a single step without removing any charges. The conjugation chemistry is highly robust, enabling the use of crude DVD for ADC preparation. In addition, this strategy affords the ability to precisely monitor the efficiency of drug conjugation with a catalytic assay. ADCs targeting HER2 were prepared and demonstrated to be highly potent and specific in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the modular DVD platform was used to prepare potent and specific ADCs targeting CD138 and CD79B, two clinically established targets overexpressed in multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, respectively.

Concepts: Protein, Multiple myeloma, Mutation, In vivo, Types of cancer, In vitro, Strategy, Multiplication


Rock, Paper, Scissors (RPS) represents a unique gaming space in which the predictions of human rational decision-making can be compared with actual performance. Playing a computerized opponent adopting a mixed-strategy equilibrium, participants revealed a non-significant tendency to over-select Rock. Further violations of rational decision-making were observed using an inter-trial analysis where participants were more likely to switch their item selection at trial nā€‰+ā€‰1 following a loss or draw at trial n, revealing the strategic vulnerability of individuals following the experience of negative rather than positive outcome. Unique switch strategies related to each of these trial n outcomes were also identified: after losing participants were more likely to ‘downgrade’ their item (e.g., Rock followed by Scissors) but after drawing participants were more likely to ‘upgrade’ their item (e.g., Rock followed by Paper). Further repetition analysis revealed that participants were more likely to continue their specific cyclic item change strategy into trial nā€‰+ā€‰2. The data reveal the strategic vulnerability of individuals following the experience of negative rather than positive outcome, the tensions between behavioural and cognitive influences on decision making, and underline the dangers of increased behavioural predictability in other recursive, non-cooperative environments such as economics and politics.

Concepts: Game theory, Decision making, Risk, Cognition, Decision theory, Decision making software, Strategy, Flipism


Exercise is frequently suggested as a treatment option for patients presenting with symptoms of subacromial impingement syndrome. Some would argue implementing a specific exercise strategy with special focus on correction of kinematic deficits would be superior to general exercise strategy. There is however a lack of evidence comparing such exercise strategies to determine which is the most effective in the treatment of subacromial impingement syndrome. The aim of this review is to evaluate whether implementing specific exercise strategies involving resistive exercises are more effective than a general exercise strategy for the treatment of patients with subacromial impingement syndrome.

Concepts: Systematic review, Physical exercise, Exercise, Strategy, Strategy pattern, Option


Innovation is to organizations what evolution is to organisms: it is how organizations adapt to environmental change and improve. Yet despite advances in our understanding of evolution, what drives innovation remains elusive. On the one hand, organizations invest heavily in systematic strategies to accelerate innovation. On the other, historical analysis and individual experience suggest that serendipity plays a significant role. To unify these perspectives, we analysed the mathematics of innovation as a search for designs across a universe of component building blocks. We tested our insights using data from language, gastronomy and technology. By measuring the number of makeable designs as we acquire components, we observed that the relative usefulness of different components can cross over time. When these crossovers are unanticipated, they appear to be the result of serendipity. But when we can predict crossovers in advance, they offer opportunities to strategically increase the growth of the product space.

Concepts: Scientific method, Evolutionary biology, Topology, Space, Knowledge, Strategy, Creativity, Strategic planning


In an era of unprecedented and rapid global change, dynamic conservation strategies that tailor the delivery of habitat to when and where it is most needed can be critical for the persistence of species, especially those with diverse and dispersed habitat requirements. We demonstrate the effectiveness of such a strategy for migratory waterbirds. We analyzed citizen science and satellite data to develop predictive models of bird populations and the availability of wetlands, which we used to determine temporal and spatial gaps in habitat during a vital stage of the annual migration. We then filled those gaps using a reverse auction marketplace to incent qualifying landowners to create temporary wetlands on their properties. This approach is a cost-effective way of adaptively meeting habitat needs for migratory species, optimizes conservation outcomes relative to investment, and can be applied broadly to other conservation challenges.

Concepts: Game theory, Conservation biology, Bird, Human migration, Strategy, Need, The Delivery, Auction


This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author explores personal resilience as an important individual characteristic that affects team functioning and thus organizational adaptability to change. The important role of resilience in strategic leadership for change is presented along with suggestions for evaluating and developing resilience.

Concepts: Management, Strategic management, Positive psychology, Leadership, Strategy, Project management, Planning, Plan


Abstract Despite recent advances in therapeutic strategies, a large proportion of patients with mantle cell lymphoma experience progression after first-line treatment. Several attempts have been performed for assessing the role of different therapies for the treatment of patients with relapsed/refractory MCL; however, a consensus on the optimal therapeutic strategy for each single patient has not been reached. Overall, clinical evidence from phase II studies show that high-dose containing regimens, stem cell transplantation, and different biological agents all have promising activity with acceptable safety profiles. Therefore, these therapies can represent suitable treatment options for patients with refractory/relapsed MCL. Among different biological agents, at present only temsirolimus was tested in a phase III study. This review discusses available evidence on the management of refractory/relapsed MCL as discussed during a consensus meeting on the current treatment strategies for MCL.

Concepts: Medicine, Clinical trial, Patient, Cell biology, Evidence-based medicine, Therapy, Strategy, Mantle cell lymphoma