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Concept: Store of value


John Ioannidis argues that problem base, context placement, information gain, pragmatism, patient centeredness, value for money, feasibility, and transparency define useful clinical research. He suggests most clinical research is not useful and reform is overdue.

Concepts: Store of value


Digital currencies have emerged as a new fascinating phenomenon in the financial markets. Recent events on the most popular of the digital currencies - BitCoin - have risen crucial questions about behavior of its exchange rates and they offer a field to study dynamics of the market which consists practically only of speculative traders with no fundamentalists as there is no fundamental value to the currency. In the paper, we connect two phenomena of the latest years - digital currencies, namely BitCoin, and search queries on Google Trends and Wikipedia - and study their relationship. We show that not only are the search queries and the prices connected but there also exists a pronounced asymmetry between the effect of an increased interest in the currency while being above or below its trend value.

Concepts: Value, World Wide Web, Stock market, History of the Internet, Store of value, United States dollar, Currency, Exchange rate


The aim was to estimate an exchange rate between EQ-5D-3L and the Adult Social Care Outcome Tool (ASCOT) using preference-based mapping via common time trade-off (TTO) valuations. EQ-5D and ASCOT are useful for examining cost-effectiveness within the health and social care sectors, respectively, but there is a policy need to understand overall benefits and compare across sectors to assess relative value for money. Standard statistical mapping is unsuitable since it relies on conceptual overlap of the measures but EQ-5D and ASCOT have different conceptualisations of quality of life.

Concepts: Statistics, Mathematics, Evaluation, Quality, Sociology, Estimation, Store of value, Economics terminology


Due to extended application of pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic screening (PGx) tests it is important to assess whether they provide good value for money. This review provides an update of the literature.

Concepts: Evaluation, Value, Store of value, Exchange value


Early intervention services (EIS) for psychosis are being implemented, internationally. It is important to learn from established examples and define the components and intensity of services that provide good value for money. This study aims to assess the cost-effectiveness of EIS according to how closely they adhered to the recommendations of the English Department of Health 2001 Policy Implementation Guide (PIG).

Concepts: Value, Policy, Implementation, According to Jim, England, English people, Store of value


Recently attention has begun to focus not only on assessing the effectiveness of interventions to tackle mental health problems, but also on measures to prevent physical co-morbidity. Individuals with mental health problems are at significantly increased risk of chronic physical health problems, such as cardiovascular disease or diabetes, as well as reduced life expectancy. The excess costs of co-morbid physical and mental health problems are substantial. Potentially, measures to reduce the risk of co-morbid physical health problems may represent excellent value for money.

Concepts: Psychology, Medicine, Epidemiology, Nutrition, Costs, Mental disorder, Price, Store of value


Fire gilding and silvering are age-old mercury-based processes used to coat thesurface of less precious substrates with thin layers of gold or silver. In ancient times, these methods were used to produce and decorate different types of artefacts, such as jewels, statues, amulets, and commonly-used objects. Gilders performed these processes not only to decorate objects but also to simulate the appearance of gold or silver, sometimes fraudulently. From a technological point of view, the aim of these workmen over 2000 years ago was to make the precious metal coatings as thin and adherent as possible. This was in order to save expensive metals and to improve the resistance to the wear caused by continued use and circulation. Without knowledge about the chemical-physical processes, the ancient crafts-men systematically manipulated these metals to create functional and decorative artistic objects. The mercury-based methods were also fraudulently used in ancient times to produce objects such as jewels and coins that looked like they were made of silver or gold but actually had a less precious core. These coins were minted by counterfeiters but also by the official issuing authorities. The latter was probably because of a lack of precious metals, reflecting periods of severe economic conditions. In this Account, we discuss some representative cases of gold- and silver-coatedobjects, focusing on unique and valuable Roman and Dark Ages period works of art, such as the St. Ambrogio’s altar (825 AD), and commonly used objects. We carried out the investigations using surface analytical methods, such as selected area X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive spectroscopy. We used these methods to investigate the surface and subsurface chemical features of these important examples of art and technology, interpreting some aspects of the manufacturing methods and of disclosing degradation agents and mechanisms. These findings may contribute to cultural heritage preservation, thus extending the applicability of the surface analytical techniques.

Concepts: Metal, Gold, Silver, Scanning electron microscope, Palladium, Store of value, Precious metal, Bullion coin


Hydrogen peroxide-based, low-temperature sterilization has been shown to do less damage to medical instruments than steam autoclaves. However, low-temperature systems are more expensive to run. Higher costs need to be balanced against savings from reduced repair costs to determine value for money when choosing how to sterilize certain instruments, which are able to be reprocessed in either system.

Concepts: Economics, Investment, Price, Sterilization, Autoclave, Compulsory sterilization, Store of value


Public spending on external consultancies, particularly within the health sector, is highly controversial in many countries. Yet, despite the apparently large sums of money involved, there is little international analysis surrounding the scope of activities of consultants, meaning there is little understanding of how much is spent, for what purpose and with what result. This paper examines spending on external consultancies in each of New Zealand’s 20 District Health Boards (DHB). Using evidence obtained from DHBs, it provides an insight into the cost and activities of consultants within the New Zealand health sector, the policies behind their engagement and the processes in place to ensure value for money. It finds that DHB spending on external consultants is substantial, at $NZ10-60 million annually. However, few DHBs had policies governing when consultants should be engaged and many were unable to easily identify the extent or purpose of consultancies within their organisation, making it difficult to derive an accurate picture of consultant activity throughout the DHB sector. Policies surrounding value for money were uncommon and, where present, were rarely applied. Given the large sums being spent by New Zealand’s DHBs, and assuming expenditure is similar in other health systems, our findings point to the need for greater accountability for expenditure and better evidence of value for money of consultancies within publicly funded health systems.

Concepts: Costs, Economics, Cost, Meaning of life, Price, Consultant, Store of value, Management consulting


This paper explores the use of pharmacoeconomic methods of valuation to health impacts resulting from exposure to poor air quality. In using such methods, interventions that reduce exposure to poor air quality can be directly compared, in terms of value for money (or cost-effectiveness), with competing demands for finite resources, including other public health interventions.

Concepts: Health economics, Public health, Costs, Evaluation methods, Value, Case study, Cost-utility analysis, Store of value