SciCombinator

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Concept: Stomach cancer

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Background: Gastric cancer, the most common cancer in the world, is affected by some foods or food groups. We examined the relationship between dietary intake and stomach cancer risk in the Korean Multi-Center Cancer Cohort (KMCC).Methods: The KMCC included 19 688 Korean men and women who were enrolled from 1993 to 2004. Of those subjects, 9724 completed a brief 14-food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Through record linkage with the Korean Central Cancer Registry and National Death Certificate databases, we documented 166 gastric cancer cases as of December 31, 2008. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs.Results: Frequent intake of soybean/tofu was significantly associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer, after adjustment for age, sex, cigarette smoking, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and area of residence (P for trend = 0.036). We found a significant inverse association between soybean/tofu intake and gastric cancer risk among women (RR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.22-0.78). Men with a high soybean/tofu intake had a lower risk of gastric cancer, but the reduction was not statistically significant (RR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.52-1.13). There was no interaction between soybean/tofu intake and cigarette smoking in relation to gastric cancer risk (P for interaction = 0.268).Conclusions: Frequent soybean/tofu intake was associated with lower risk of gastric cancer.

Concepts: Metastasis, Proportional hazards models, Smoking, Tobacco, Cigarette, Body mass index, Stomach, Stomach cancer

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Signet ring cell carcinoma (SRC) of the stomach is known to have different microscopic and biologic characteristics compared to non-SRC. The pathologic report has documented partly SRC component with main histologies. However, the clinical significance of SRC mixture has not been reported. Aim was to investigate clinicopathologic features of mixed-SRC histology in early gastric cancer (EGC).

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Histology, Stomach, Squamous cell carcinoma, Helicobacter pylori, Stomach cancer, Signet ring cell carcinoma

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To evaluate the local tumor control and survival data after transarterial chemoembolization with different drug combinations in the palliative treatment of patients with liver metastases of gastric cancer.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Chemotherapy, Palliative care, Stomach, Stomach cancer, Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization

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Endoscopic submucosal dissection is gaining popularity in the treatment of early gastric cancer. This study aimed to identify clinicopathological factors predictive of lymph node metastasis in patients with the poorly differentiated early gastric cancer to assess the feasibility of using endoscopic submucosal dissection for these cancers.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Lung cancer, Cancer staging, Lymph node, Stomach cancer

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BACKGROUND: Intramural metastasis (IM) in gastric cancer is rare. However, it often occurs with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and has been reported to have a poor prognosis. METHODS: In 4,714 cases of gastric cancer that underwent gastrectomy, the clinicopathological features and postoperative prognoses of 29 cases with IM were evaluated and compared with 2,770 cases of advanced gastric cancer without IM. RESULTS: Of the 4,714 cases, 29 (0.6 %) were histopathologically diagnosed with gastric cancer with IM. There were significant differences in the number of lymph node metastases, capillary invasion, and stage grouping between cases with IM and advanced gastric cancer without IM. Metastasis size was approximately within 2 cm, and many metastases occurred within 2 cm of the primary lesion. Multiple metastases were observed in 38 % of cases and occurred mainly in the submucosa and muscularis propria. IM was detected preoperatively in 17.2 % of cases and was present equally on both sides of the primary lesion. Nine cases had IM outside the stomach. The median survival time with IM was significantly less than in cases of advanced gastric cancer without IM (p < 0.0001). A subgroup of cases with IM within 1 cm of the primary lesion had a relatively favorable prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of IM is thought to be one of the most important prognostic factors in gastric cancer. Aggressive resection is recommended to increase long-term survival if curative resection is possible.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Lung cancer, Lymph node, Stomach, Squamous cell carcinoma, Esophagus, Stomach cancer

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In recent years, laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy has become the recognized procedure for treatment of early gastric cancer because of improved cosmesis and reduced postoperative pain. However, there are a few reports of laparoscopic-assisted total gastrectomy (LATG) performed for gastric cancer in the upper third or middle third stomach due to the difficulties of surgical techniques and the safety of oncologic short-term and long-term outcomes.

Concepts: Metastasis, Stomach, Helicobacter pylori, Term, Abdomen, Stomach cancer, Gastrectomy

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Several conditions associated with reduced gastric acid secretion confer an altered risk of developing a gastric malignancy. Helicobacter pylori-induced atrophic gastritis predisposes to gastric adenocarcinoma, autoimmune atrophic gastritis is a precursor of type I gastric neuroendocrine tumours, whereas proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use does not affect stomach cancer risk. We hypothesised that each of these conditions was associated with specific alterations in the gastric microbiota and that this influenced subsequent tumour risk. 95 patients (in groups representing normal stomach, PPI treated, H. pylori gastritis, H. pylori-induced atrophic gastritis and autoimmune atrophic gastritis) were selected from a cohort of 1400. RNA extracted from gastric corpus biopsies was analysed using 16S rRNA sequencing (MiSeq). Samples from normal stomachs and patients treated with PPIs demonstrated similarly high microbial diversity. Patients with autoimmune atrophic gastritis also exhibited relatively high microbial diversity, but with samples dominated by Streptococcus. H. pylori colonisation was associated with decreased microbial diversity and reduced complexity of co-occurrence networks. H. pylori-induced atrophic gastritis resulted in lower bacterial abundances and diversity, whereas autoimmune atrophic gastritis resulted in greater bacterial abundance and equally high diversity compared to normal stomachs. Pathway analysis suggested that glucose-6-phospahte1-dehydrogenase and D-lactate dehydrogenase were over represented in H. pylori-induced atrophic gastritis versus autoimmune atrophic gastritis, and that both these groups showed increases in fumarate reductase. Autoimmune and H. pylori-induced atrophic gastritis were associated with different gastric microbial profiles. PPI treated patients showed relatively few alterations in the gastric microbiota compared to healthy subjects.

Concepts: Cancer, Bacteria, Oncology, Stomach, Helicobacter pylori, Gastritis, Gastric acid, Stomach cancer

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Extreme telomere length has been previously reported to be associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. However, evidence from prospective studies on a relative large sample size with long-term follow-up to further corroborate previous study findings is meager.

Concepts: Sample, Epidemiology, Metastasis, Sample size, Stomach, Telomere, Abdomen, Stomach cancer

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Metastases to the colon are rare and a high-frequency primary region is the stomach. In cases of metastases to the colon, the morphological type of the metastatic region is mostly the infiltrating type of poorly differentiated or undifferentiated adenocarcinoma with lymph and blood vessel invasion. A case of cancer metastasis to the transverse colon that originated from advanced gastric cancer, which shows the difficulties in the precise diagnosis of metastases to the colon, is presented. In the present case, the gastric carcinoma was determined to be an advanced infiltrative ulcerative adenocarcinoma and the colon carcinoma was determined to be a superficial depressed adenocarcinoma. After surgery, the colon carcinoma was diagnosed as a metastatic adenocarcinoma from gastric adenocarcinoma with high invasion of vessels, by immunohistopathological analysis of CK7, CK20, p53 and HER-2. In this report, previously reported cases of metastases to the colon from gastric cancer were reviewed and their morphological characteristics were analyzed.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Lung cancer, Lymph node, Stomach, Stomach cancer

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The potential associations between dietary consumption of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines and gastric cancer risk have been investigated by several studies, but yielded inconclusive results. We conducted a meta-analysis to provide a quantitative assessment of their relationships. Relevant articles were identified by a systematic literature searching of PubMed and Embase databases prior to August 2015. Random-effects models were employed to pool the relative risks. A total of 22 articles consisting of 49 studies-19 studies for nitrates, 19 studies for nitrites, and 11 studies for N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)-were included. The summary relative risk of stomach cancer for the highest categories, compared with the lowest, was 0.80 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.69-0.93) for dietary nitrates intake, 1.31 (95% CI, 1.13-1.52) for nitrites, and 1.34 (95% CI, 1.02-1.76) for NDMA (p for heterogeneity was 0.015, 0.013 and <0.001, respectively). The study type was found as the main source of heterogeneity for nitrates and nitrites. The heterogeneity for NDMA could not be eliminated completely through stratified analysis. Although significant associations were all observed in case-control studies, the cohort studies still showed a slight trend. The dose-response analysis indicated similar results as well. High nitrates intake was associated with a weak but statistically significant reduced risk of gastric cancer. Whereas increased consumption of nitrites and NDMA seemed to be risk factors for cancer. Due to the lack of uniformity for exposure assessment across studies, further prospective researches are warranted to verify these findings.

Concepts: Cohort study, Epidemiology, Metastasis, Relative risk, Evaluation methods, Stomach, Study design, Stomach cancer