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Concept: Stillbirth


Tanzania has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world, and unsafe abortion is one of its leading causes. Yet little is known about its incidence.

Concepts: Demography, Abortion, World, Maternal death, Reproductive rights, Stillbirth, Unsafe abortion


To collate and critically appraise extant evidence for the impact of contact with the stillborn infant on parental mental health, well-being and satisfaction.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Infant, Critical thinking, Infancy, Stillbirth


The development of new methods to cryopreserve human ovarian cortex tissues without damage is needed for the improvement of quality of life of female cancer patients. Here, we show that stable expressions of nine genes within human oocytes by using a supercooling procedure are necessary in order to produce human mature eggs and experience live births with high safety profiles by in vitro fertilisation. Our method will be helpful in order to preserve the fertility of female cancer patients or healthy women.

Concepts: Biology, Life, Demography, Spermatozoon, In vitro fertilisation, Abortion, Stillbirth, Live birth


Sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) assessed by sperm chromatin structure assay is a valuable tool for prediction of fertility in vivo. Previous studies on DFI as predictor of in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome, based on relatively small materials, gave contradictory results. The present study examines, in a large cohort, the association between sperm DFI and the outcome of IVF/ICSI procedure. The study is based on 1633 IVF or ICSI cycles performed at the Reproductive Medicine Centre, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden, between May 2007 and March 2013. DFI values were categorized into four intervals: DFI ≤ 10% (reference group), 10% < DFI ≤ 20%, 20% < DFI ≤ 30%, DFI > 30%. For the three latter intervals, the following outcomes of IVF/ICSI procedures were analyzed in relation to the reference group: fertilization, good quality embryo, pregnancy, miscarriage, and live births. In the standard IVF group, a significant negative association between DFI and fertilization rate was found. When calculated per ovum pick-up (OPU) Odds Ratios (ORs) for at least one good quality embryo (GQE) were significantly lower in the standard IVF group if DFI > 20%. OR for live birth calculated per OPU was significantly lower in standard IVF group if DFI > 20% (OR 0.61; 95% CI: 0.38-0.97; p = 0.04). No such associations were seen in the ICSI group. OR for live birth by ICSI compared to IVF were statistically significantly higher for DFI > 20% (OR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0-2.9; p = 0.05). OR for miscarriage was significantly increased for DFI > 40% (OR 3.8; 95% CI: 1.2-12; p = 0.02). The results suggest that ICSI might be a preferred method of in vitro treatment in cases with high DFI. Efforts should be made to find options for pharmacologically induced reduction of DFI. The study was based on retrospectively collected data and prospective studies confirming the superiority of ICSI in cases with high DFI are warranted.

Concepts: DNA, Pregnancy, Reproduction, Obstetrics, Fertility, Abortion, Stillbirth, Live birth


In resource-poor settings, the provision of basic maternity care within health centres is often a challenge. Despite the difficulties, Nepal reduced its maternal mortality ratio by 80% from 850 to an estimated 170 per 100,000 live births between 1991 and 2011 to achieve Millennium Development Goal Five. One group that has been credited for this is community health workers, known as Female Community Health Volunteers (FCHVs), who form an integral part of the government healthcare system. This qualitative study explores the role of FCHVs in maternal healthcare provision in two regions: the Hill and Terai.

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, Healthcare, Demography, Obstetrics, Maternal death, Millennium Development Goals, Stillbirth


The burden of maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa is very high. In Ghana maternal mortality ratio was 380 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2013. Skilled birth attendance has been shown to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity, yet in 2010 only 68 percent of mothers in Ghana gave birth with the assistance of skilled birth attendants. In 2005, the Ghana Health Service piloted a strategy that involved using the integrated Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) program and training Community Health Officers (CHOs) as midwives to address the gap in skilled attendance in rural Upper East Region (UER). The study assesses the feasibility of and extent to which the skilled delivery program has been implemented as an integrated component of the existing CHPS, and documents the benefits and challenges of the integrated program.

Concepts: Childbirth, Death, Africa, Demography, Obstetrics, Abortion, Maternal death, Stillbirth


In Kenya, skilled attendance at delivery is well below the international target of 90% and the maternal mortality ratio is high at 362 (CI 254-471) per 100,000 live births despite various interventions. The preventative role of skilled attendance at delivery makes it a benchmark indicator for safe motherhood.

Concepts: Childbirth, Epidemiology, Demography, Obstetrics, Abortion, Maternal death, Perinatal mortality, Stillbirth


Ethiopia has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world (420 per 100,000 live births in 2013), and unsafe abortion continues to be one of the major causes. To reduce deaths and disabilities from unsafe abortion, Ethiopia liberalized its abortion law in 2005 to allow safe abortion under certain conditions. This study aimed to measure how availability and utilization of safe abortion services has changed in the last decade in Ethiopia.

Concepts: Death, Demography, Obstetrics, Abortion, Maternal death, Stillbirth, Live birth, Our Lady Peace


To identify the factors underlying the recent increase in maternal mortality ratios (maternal deaths per 100,000 live births) in the United States.

Concepts: Death, Demography, United States, Poverty in the United States, U.S. state, Abortion, Maternal death, Stillbirth


No studies to date have reported an estimated number of live births, elective terminations, and natural losses (miscarriages and stillbirths) for Down syndrome (DS) in Massachusetts (MA). These numbers would be helpful to estimate how many expectant parents of children with DS need support and the number of live-born children with DS who require services.

Concepts: Mathematics, Obstetrics, Abortion, Number, Down syndrome, Estimation, Stillbirth, Live birth