Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Sterilization


Forced and coerced sterilization is an internationally recognized human rights violation reported by women living with HIV (WLHIV) around the globe. Forced sterilization occurs when a person is sterilized without her knowledge or informed consent. Coerced sterilization occurs when misinformation, intimidation tactics, financial incentives or access to health services or employment are used to compel individuals to accept the procedure.

Concepts: Health, Informed consent, United States, Human rights, Sterilization, Compulsory sterilization, Reproductive rights


Essure, a female-sterilization device, is being reevaluated by an FDA panel 13 years after its original approval. Would concerns about its safety and effectiveness have been addressed earlier with better research and result dissemination?

Concepts: Effectiveness, Sterilization


To compare population-based sterilization rates between Latinas/os and non-Latinas/os sterilized under California’s eugenics law.

Concepts: Birth control, United States, Huntington's disease, Sterilization, Compulsory sterilization, Eugenics, Buck v. Bell


Sterilized packaging systems are designed to maintain the sterility of surgical instruments and devices from the time of sterilization until use. This study evaluated the effectiveness of rigid containers versus wrapped instrument trays, sterilized using North American sterilization protocols, to maintain a sterile internal environment poststerilization when challenged with aerosolized bacteria under dynamic environmental conditions.

Concepts: Bacteria, United States, Microorganism, North America, Environmental science, Sterilization


Deficiencies in the sterile processing of medical instruments contribute to poor outcomes for patients, such as surgical site infections, longer hospital stays, and deaths. In low resources settings, such as some rural and semi-rural areas and secondary and tertiary cities of developing countries, deficiencies in sterile processing are accentuated due to the lack of access to sterilization equipment, improperly maintained and malfunctioning equipment, lack of power to operate equipment, poor protocols, and inadequate quality control over inventory. Inspired by our sterile processing fieldwork at a district hospital in Sierra Leone in 2013, we built an autonomous, shipping-container-based sterile processing unit to address these deficiencies. The sterile processing unit, dubbed “the sterile box,” is a full suite capable of handling instruments from the moment they leave the operating room to the point they are sterile and ready to be reused for the next surgery. The sterile processing unit is self-sufficient in power and water and features an intake for contaminated instruments, decontamination, sterilization via non-electric steam sterilizers, and secure inventory storage. To validate efficacy, we ran tests of decontamination and sterilization performance. Results of 61 trials validate convincingly that our sterile processing unit achieves satisfactory outcomes for decontamination and sterilization and as such holds promise to support healthcare facilities in low resources settings.

Concepts: Patient, Hospital, Surgery, Hygiene, Sterilization, Autoclave, Sierra Leone, Sierra Leonean leone


A non-hormonal male contraceptive is a contraceptive that does not involve the administration of hormones or hormone blockers. This review will focus on the use of lonidamine derivatives and inhibitors of retinoic acid biosynthesis and function as approaches to male non-hormonal contraception. Two current lonidamine derivatives, adjudin and H2-gamendazole, are in development as male contraceptives. These potent anti-spermatogenic compounds impair the integrity of the apical ectoplasmic specialization, resulting in premature spermiation and infertility. Another approach to male contraceptive development is the inhibition of retinoic acid in the testes, as retinoic acid signaling is necessary for spermatogenesis. The administration of the retinoic acid receptor antagonist BMS-189453 reversibly inhibits spermatogenesis in mice. Similarly, oral dosing of WIN 18,446, which inhibits testicular retinoic acid biosynthesis, effectively contracepts rabbits. Hopefully, one of these approaches to non-hormonal male contraception will prove to be safe and effective in future clinical trials.

Concepts: Protein, Birth control, Signal transduction, Receptor, Puberty, Sterilization, Retinoic acid receptor, Male contraceptive


Probiotics have been considered to affect not only the gut but also the skin. This study aimed at examining whether oral administration of live Bifidobacterium breve strain Yakult (BBY), a typical probiotic, could exert photoprotective effects in hairless mouse skin.

Concepts: Gut flora, Probiotic, Mouse, Human skin color, Sterilization, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium animalis, Yakult


To evaluate the effects of repeated autoclave sterilization cycles on surface topography of conventional nickel-titanium ( NiTi ) and titanium nitride ( TiN )-coated rotary instruments.

Concepts: Titanium, Sterilization, Autoclave, Nitrides, Titanium nitride, Body piercing


Varicocele, the leading cause of male infertility, can impair spermatogenesis through several pathophysiological mechanisms. Of these, current evidence suggests that oxidative stress is the central element contributing to infertility in men with varicocele, to which the testis responds by way of heat stress, ischaemia or production of vasodilators, such as nitric oxide. Surgical varicocele repair (varicocelectomy) is beneficial not only for alleviating oxidative stress-associated infertility, but also for preventing and protecting against the progressive character of varicocele and its consequent upregulations of systemic oxidative stress. However, antioxidant therapy in infertile men with surgically treated and those with untreated varicocele is poorly studied, and well-designed trials are needed.

Concepts: Antioxidant, Oxidative stress, Nitrogen, Andrology, Infertility, Nitric oxide, Sterilization, Varicocele


Varicocelectomy is the most commonly performed surgical procedure for the treatment of male infertility. Although several different techniques for varicocele repair have been described in the literature, microsurgical varicocelectomy performed through a subinguinal or inguinal incision is recognized as the gold-standard approach for varicocelectomy, due to high success rates with minimal complications. Standard indications for varicocelectomy include palpable varicocele(s), with one or more abnormal semen parameters, and, for the couple trying to conceive, in the setting of normal or correctable female infertility. However, varicocele repair is often recommended and undertaken for reasons other than infertility, including low serum testosterone, testicular pain, testicular hypotrophy and poor sperm DNA quality. This article reviews the technical aspects of microsurgical varicocelectomy, and its indications in adults and adolescents.Asian Journal of Andrology advance online publication, 12 November 2012; doi:10.1038/aja.2012.98.

Concepts: Sperm, Andrology, Infertility, Fertility, Spermatozoon, Scrotum, Sterilization, Varicocele