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Concept: Statin

437

Background Evolocumab is a monoclonal antibody that inhibits proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and lowers low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels by approximately 60%. Whether it prevents cardiovascular events is uncertain. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 27,564 patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and LDL cholesterol levels of 70 mg per deciliter (1.8 mmol per liter) or higher who were receiving statin therapy. Patients were randomly assigned to receive evolocumab (either 140 mg every 2 weeks or 420 mg monthly) or matching placebo as subcutaneous injections. The primary efficacy end point was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina, or coronary revascularization. The key secondary efficacy end point was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. The median duration of follow-up was 2.2 years. Results At 48 weeks, the least-squares mean percentage reduction in LDL cholesterol levels with evolocumab, as compared with placebo, was 59%, from a median baseline value of 92 mg per deciliter (2.4 mmol per liter) to 30 mg per deciliter (0.78 mmol per liter) (P<0.001). Relative to placebo, evolocumab treatment significantly reduced the risk of the primary end point (1344 patients [9.8%] vs. 1563 patients [11.3%]; hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79 to 0.92; P<0.001) and the key secondary end point (816 [5.9%] vs. 1013 [7.4%]; hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.88; P<0.001). The results were consistent across key subgroups, including the subgroup of patients in the lowest quartile for baseline LDL cholesterol levels (median, 74 mg per deciliter [1.9 mmol per liter]). There was no significant difference between the study groups with regard to adverse events (including new-onset diabetes and neurocognitive events), with the exception of injection-site reactions, which were more common with evolocumab (2.1% vs. 1.6%). Conclusions In our trial, inhibition of PCSK9 with evolocumab on a background of statin therapy lowered LDL cholesterol levels to a median of 30 mg per deciliter (0.78 mmol per liter) and reduced the risk of cardiovascular events. These findings show that patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease benefit from lowering of LDL cholesterol levels below current targets. (Funded by Amgen; FOURIER ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01764633 .).

Concepts: Cholesterol, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Cardiovascular disease, Low-density lipoprotein, Statin, Atheroma, Apolipoprotein B

274

Statins reduce LDL cholesterol and prevent vascular events, but their net effects in people at low risk of vascular events remain uncertain.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Low-density lipoprotein, Statin, Mevalonate pathway

220

To determine the association between use of lipid lowering drugs (statin or fibrate) in older people with no known history of vascular events and long term risk of coronary heart disease and stroke

Concepts: Epidemiology, Atherosclerosis, Demography, Heart, Statin, Actuarial science, Triglyceride, Heart disease

213

To estimate the average postponement of death in statin trials.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Statin

189

Abstract Objective. This study aimed to investigate the association of lipoprotein and triglyceride levels with all-cause mortality in a population free from diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) at baseline. The European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention state that in general total cholesterol (TC) should be < 5 mmol/L (190 mg/dL) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) should be < 3 mmol/L (115 mg/dL). Design. A population-based register study in the period 1999-2007 including 118 160 subjects aged 50 + without statin use at baseline. All-cause mortality was related to lipoprotein and triglyceride levels and adjusted for statin use after inclusion. Results. All-cause mortality was lower in the groups with TC or LDL-C above the recommended levels. Compared with subjects with TC < 5 mmol/L, adjusted hazard ratios for the group aged 60-70 years ranged from 0.68 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-0.77) for TC 5-5.99 mmol/L to 0.67 (95% CI 0.59-0.75) for TC 6-7.99 mmol/L and 1.02 (95% CI 0.68-1.53) for TC ≥ 8 mmol/L in males and from 0.57 (95% CI 0.48-0.67) to 0.59 (95% CI 0.50-0.68) and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.77-1.37) in females. For triglycerides, ratios compared with the group < 1 mmol/L in the females aged 60-70 years ranged from 1.04 (95% CI 0.88-1.23) to 1.35 (95% CI 1.10-1.66) and 1.25 (95% CI 1.05-1.48) for triglycerides 1-1.39 mmol/L, 1.4-1.69 mmol/L, and ≥ 1.7 mmol/L, respectively. Statin treatment after inclusion provided a survival benefit. Conclusion. These associations indicate that high lipoprotein levels do not seem to be definitely harmful in the general population. However, high triglyceride levels in females are associated with decreased survival.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Cardiovascular disease, Low-density lipoprotein, Statin, Atheroma, Triglyceride

169

The objective of the study is a comparative evaluation of flavone isolated from Mucuna pruriens and coumarin isolated from Ionidium suffruticosum was assessed for the hypolipidemic activity in rats fed with high fat diet. The acute toxicity study was found that flavone (M.pruriens) and coumarin (I.suffruticosum) are safe up to 100mg/kg, so one tenth of this dose (10mg/kg) was consider as a evaluation dose. High fat diet group of rats showed significant (p<0.001) elevation in plasma total and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids. Administration of flavone (M. pruriens) and coumarin isolated from (I.suffruticosum) at the dose of 10mg/kg b.wt/day along with high fat diet significantly (p<0.001) prevented the rise in the plasma total and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids than that of other extracts. However, treatment of coumarin isolated from (I.suffruticosum) had showed more cardio protective effect against hyperlipidemia than that of flavone (M.pruriens).

Concepts: Cholesterol, Fatty acid, Statin, Toxicology, Acute accent, Glycerol, Acute toxicity, Mucuna pruriens

158

Background Statin therapy reduces low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and the risk of cardiovascular events, but whether the addition of ezetimibe, a nonstatin drug that reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption, can reduce the rate of cardiovascular events further is not known. Methods We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial involving 18,144 patients who had been hospitalized for an acute coronary syndrome within the preceding 10 days and had LDL cholesterol levels of 50 to 100 mg per deciliter (1.3 to 2.6 mmol per liter) if they were receiving lipid-lowering therapy or 50 to 125 mg per deciliter (1.3 to 3.2 mmol per liter) if they were not receiving lipid-lowering therapy. The combination of simvastatin (40 mg) and ezetimibe (10 mg) (simvastatin-ezetimibe) was compared with simvastatin (40 mg) and placebo (simvastatin monotherapy). The primary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina requiring rehospitalization, coronary revascularization (≥30 days after randomization), or nonfatal stroke. The median follow-up was 6 years. Results The median time-weighted average LDL cholesterol level during the study was 53.7 mg per deciliter (1.4 mmol per liter) in the simvastatin-ezetimibe group, as compared with 69.5 mg per deciliter (1.8 mmol per liter) in the simvastatin-monotherapy group (P<0.001). The Kaplan-Meier event rate for the primary end point at 7 years was 32.7% in the simvastatin-ezetimibe group, as compared with 34.7% in the simvastatin-monotherapy group (absolute risk difference, 2.0 percentage points; hazard ratio, 0.936; 95% confidence interval, 0.89 to 0.99; P=0.016). Rates of prespecified muscle, gallbladder, and hepatic adverse effects and cancer were similar in the two groups. Conclusions When added to statin therapy, ezetimibe resulted in incremental lowering of LDL cholesterol levels and improved cardiovascular outcomes. Moreover, lowering LDL cholesterol to levels below previous targets provided additional benefit. (Funded by Merck; IMPROVE-IT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00202878 .).

Concepts: Cholesterol, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Angina pectoris, Cardiovascular disease, Low-density lipoprotein, Statin, Atheroma

141

Elevated level of serum triglyceride (TG) is a characteristic of type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the clinical significance of intervention for the serum TG levels in the fasting and postprandial states in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Concepts: Diabetes mellitus type 2, Statin, Triglyceride, Fibrate

103

 To quantify how a period of intense media coverage of controversy over the risk:benefit balance of statins affected their use.

Concepts: Statistics, Series, Statin, Calculus, Time series, Seasonality

81

Several prior studies have found an association between statin use and reduced risk of colorectal cancer. We hypothesized that these findings may be due to systematic bias and examined the independent association of colorectal cancer risk with statin use, serum cholesterol, and change in cholesterol concentration.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Atherosclerosis, Statin, Colorectal cancer, Lipid hypothesis