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Concept: Static stretching


Improving the process of how physical performance is enhanced is one of the main topics evaluated by physiologists. This process often involves athletes as well as non-athletic populations. The purpose of this study was to assess the chronic response to ten weeks of static stretching exercises carried out before and during a strength training program for eight exercises on eight repetition maximum (8RM) test performance, and basal serum IGF-1 levels. Thirty recreationally trained volunteers were randomly assigned into one of three training groups: 1) SBST (performed a warm-up with a static stretching protocol before each strength training session); 2) SDST (before each training set, a static stretching exercise was performed); and 3) OST (entire session was performed without any type of stretching exercise). Strength and IGF-1 levels were collected at the beginning (pre-test) and end (post-test) of the entire experimental procedure. All exercises showed a significant increase in muscle strength for the OST group. However, the results revealed a significant increase in muscle strength for only a few exercises in the SBST (LP, LE) and SDST (LP) experimental conditions. Significant statistical differences were found between SBST and SDST for all exercises in the OST experimental condition. Furthermore, IGF-1 expression showed no significant differences in intragroup analysis. However, the OST group showed higher values (p<0.05) in post-test when compared to other groups (increased significantly only in the OST experimental condition). It has been concluded that, while all groups showed an increase in muscular strength, but the strength training performed without any type of stretching exercise, regardless of if the stretching is performed prior or during the lifting session, can more effectively increase muscle strength as well as basal serum IGF-1 levels. It was concluded that strength training, with or without the use of stretching exercises, increased muscular strength in the studied groups, and can induce an increase in IGF-1 levels.

Concepts: Muscle contraction, Warming up, Strength training, Static stretching, Muscle, Exercise, Stretching, Physical exercise


The purpose of this study was to analyze the acute effect of static stretching on the performance of multiple-sets in the bench press exercise. Fifteen men (26.2 ± 0.7 years, 72.4 ± 1.3 kg, 1.78 ± 0.1 m, 22.8 ± 0.3 kg/m) performed four sets of the bench press exercise at 80% of 1RM until concentric failure, both in the stretching condition (SC) and control condition (CC). The rate of force decline between the first and the fourth set was used as fatigue index. A randomized, counterbalanced, cross-over design was performed with 48 hours between each session. Two static stretching exercises (pectoral and triceps brachii muscles) were performed in a single-set before bench press in SC, while in CC subjects remained at rest for 150 seconds. For each stretching exercise, the muscle was held at the maximal stretched position for 30 s. No significant difference (P > 0.05) was identified for total repetitions performed in four sets (SC = 21.3 ± 0.7 vs. CC = 20.5 ± 0.7) and in the fatigue index (SC = 75.5 ± 1.3% vs. CC = 73.2 ± 1.9%). The results suggest that the performance of multiple-sets in the bench press exercise does not seem to be influenced by previous static stretching.

Concepts: Running, Muscle, Triceps brachii muscle, Static stretching, Bench press, Exercise, Stretching, Physical exercise


Previous studies have demonstrated that arterial stiffness is associated with lumbar flexibility (LF). Stretching exercise targeted to improve LF may have a beneficial effect on reducing arterial stiffness.

Concepts: Effect, Static stretching, Physical exercise, Exercise, Stretching


The effect of acute static stretch (ASS) on the lower limb RT has been recently questioned to decrease the risk of falling and injuries in situations requiring a rapid reaction, as in the cases of balance disturbance.

Concepts: Limb, Force, Exercise, Static stretching, Stretching, Virtual reality


Habitual stretching exercise increases carotid arterial compliance, and acute stretching exercise increases arterial compliance in patients with myocardial infarction. However, it is not known whether this arterial adaptation is sustained after exercise. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a single bout of stretching exercise on the time course of systemic, central, and peripheral arterial stiffness in healthy young subjects.

Concepts: Artery, Heart, Static stretching, Physical exercise, Atherosclerosis, Exercise, Myocardial infarction, Stretching


Osteoarthritis (OA) is a highly prevalent and disabling disease. It is estimated that by 2030 the prevalence of symptomatic OA could reach 30 % of the population above 60 years. This randomised controlled trial will investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and static stretching exercises, as monotherapy and in combination, on pain, quality of life, function, mobility, knee range of motion (KROM) and hamstring shortening in participants with knee OA.

Concepts: Range of motion, Disease, Randomized controlled trial, Medical statistics, Exercise, Static stretching, Epidemiology, Stretching


The loading characteristics of stretching techniques likely influence the specific mechanisms responsible for acute increases in range of motion (ROM). Therefore, the effects of a version of contract-relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (CR) stretching, static stretching (SS) and maximal isometric contraction (Iso) interventions were studied in 17 healthy human volunteers.

Concepts: Mechanics, Classical mechanics, Static stretching, Range of motion, PNF stretching, Isometric exercise, Stretching, Exercise


Introduction: This study investigated the viscoelastic stress relaxation response before and after a 10-week hamstrings static stretch program. Methods: The maximal range of motion (ROMmax ) and maximal torque (Torquemax ) were assessed before and after a 10-week stretching program. Six 30-s static stretches at a predetermined torque were performed, and the relative change in stress relaxation was examined. Results: ROMmax and Torquemax increased significantly by 53% and 82%, respectively (P<0.001). The relative stress relaxation (RSR) significantly decreased for repetition 1 when comparing the pretest (25%) and posttest values (21%) (P=0.003). A significant decrease was also observed for repetitions 2 and 3 (P<0.014), with no significant difference in repetitions 4 to 6 (P>0.056). Conclusion: Individuals who participated in a 10-week hamstrings passive-static stretch program had a reduced RSR response. A higher stretch intensity or duration may be necessary to achieve RSR similar to those reported prior to stretch program. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Physical quantities, Static stretching, Force, Range of motion, Materials science, All rights reserved, Copyright, Stretching


Static stretching is used in sport practice but it has been associated with decrements in force and performance. Therefore, we examined the effect of short duration static stretch on the mechano-morphological properties of the m. vastus lateralis (VL) muscle tendon unit (MTU) and on the jumping performance.

Concepts: Physical exercise, Exercise, Locomotion, Static stretching, Tendon, Muscle contraction, Vastus lateralis muscle, Stretching


Information regarding the effects of stretching intensity on the joint torque-angle response is scarce. The present study examined the effects of three static stretching protocols with different intensities and durations on the passive knee extension torque-angle response of seventeen male participants (age ± SD: 23·9 ± 3·6 years, height: 177·0 ± 7·2 cm, BMI: 22·47 ± 1·95 kg·m(2) ). The stretching intensity was determined according to the maximal tolerable torque of the first repetition: fifty per cent (P50), seventy-five per cent (P75) and the maximum intensity without pain (P100). Five repetitions were performed for each protocol. The stretch duration of each repetition was 90, 135 and 180 s for P100, P75 and P50, respectively. The rest period between repetitions was 30 s. Passive torque at a given angle, angle, stress relaxation, area under the curve, surface electromyography activity and visual analogue scale score were compared. The significant (P<0·05) results found were as follows: (i) the P50 and P75 did not increase the angle and passive peak torque outcomes, despite more time under stretch; (ii) only the P100 increased the angle and passive peak torque outcomes; (iii) the perception of stretching intensity mainly changed depending on knee angle changes, and not passive torque; (iv) the P50 induced a higher passive torque decrease; (v) when protocols were compared for the same time under stretch, the torque decrease was similar; (vi) the change in torque-angle curve shape was different depending on the stretching protocol. In conclusion, higher stretch duration seems to be a crucial factor for passive torque decrease and higher stretch intensity for maximum angle increase.

Concepts: Protocol, Repetition, Exercise, Change, Static stretching, Torque, Time, Stretching