SciCombinator

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Concept: Starch gelatinization

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Corn-broad bean spaghetti type pasta was made with a corn/broad bean flour blend in a 70:30 ratio, through an extrusion-cooking process (Brabender 10 DN single-screw extruder with a 3:1 compression ratio). The effect of temperature (T=80, 90 and 100°C) and moisture (M=28%, 31% and 34%) on the extrusion responses (specific consumption of mechanical energy and pressure) and the quality of this pasta-like product (expansion, cooking-related losses, water absorption, firmness and stickiness) was assessed. The structural changes of starch were studied by means of DSC and XRD. The extrusion-cooking process, at M=28% and T=100°C, is appropriate to obtain corn-broad bean spaghetti-type pasta with high protein and dietary fibre content and adequate quality. The cooking characteristics and resistance to overcooking depended on the degree of gelatinisation and formation of amylose-lipid complexes. The critical gelatinisation point was 46.55%; beyond that point, the quality of the product declines.

Concepts: Protein, Nutrition, Maize, Pasta, Flour, Vicia faba, Vicia, Starch gelatinization

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Blends based on plasticized-wheat starch (as matrix or rich phase) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) (as dispersed phase) were prepared by melt processing in a twin-screw extruder. The extrusion of the plasticized-starch is significantly facilitated by blending with PEO. Plasticized-starch and PEO are immiscible in the range of the investigated blend ratios (90/10-50/50). The phase inversion takes place when the PEO content is 50 wt.% in the blend. Both the thermal stability and the tensile properties of plasticized-starch are improved by blending with PEO. Also, a synergistic effect between plasticized-starch and PEO is noticed at 25-40 wt.% PEO content in the blend, the Young’s modulus of the materials obtained being the highest and higher than both neat polymer components at those blending ratios.

Concepts: Aluminium, Young's modulus, Starch gelatinization

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Enhancement of product properties of extruded starch based products can be achieved by incorporating health promoting oil into the matrix. In order to achieve a preferably high expansion with a homogeneous pore structure, the expansion mechanisms have to be understood. In our study, we applied a customized twin-screw extruder set up to feed medium-chain triglycerides after complete gelatinization of corn starch, minimizing its effect on the starch gelatinization. Despite the fact, that the addition of up to 3.5% oil showed no influence on the extrusion parameters, we observed a three-fold increase in sectional expansion. Longitudinal expansion was less affected by the oil content. Rheological properties of the gelatinized starch were measured using an inline slit die rheometer. In addition to shear viscosity, we presented a method to determine the Bagley pressure, which reflects the elongational properties of a fluid. We were able to observe an increase in the Bagley pressure from about 25bar up to 35-37bar due to the addition of oil.

Concepts: Starch, Fluid mechanics, Viscosity, Liquid, Shear stress, Rheology, Extrusion, Starch gelatinization

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PURPOSE: In the present study we evaluated a novel processing technique for the continuous production of hotmelt extruded controlled release matrix systems. A cutting technique derived from plastics industry, where it is widely used for cutting of cables and wires was adapted into the production line. Extruded strands were shaped by a rotary-fly cutter. Special focus is laid on the development of a process analytical technology by evaluating signals obtained from the servo control of the rotary fly cutter. The intention is to provide a better insight into the production process and to offer the ability to detect small variations in process-variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A co-rotating twin-screw extruder ZSE 27 HP-PH from Leistritz (Nürnberg, Germany) was used to plasticize the starch; critical extrusion parameters were recorded. Still elastic strands were shaped by a rotary fly-cutter type Dynamat 20 from Metzner (Neu-Ulm, Germany). Properties of the final products were analyzed via digital image analysis to point out critical parameters influencing the quality. Important aspects were uniformity of diameter, height, roundness, weight and variations in the cutting angle. Stability of the products was measured by friability tests and by determining the crushing strength of the final products. Drug loading studies up to 70% were performed to evaluate the capacity of the matrix and to prove the technological feasibility. Changes in viscosities during API addition were analyzed by a Haake Minilab capillary rheometer. X-ray studies were performed to investigate molecular structures of the matrices. RESULTS: External shapes of the products were highly affected by die-swelling of the melt. Reliable reproducibility concerning uniformity of mass could be achieved even for high production rates (>2500 cuts/min). Both mechanical strength and die swelling of the products could be linked to the ratio of amylose to amylopectin. Formulations containing up to 70% of API could still be processed. Viscosity measurements revealed the plasticizing effect caused by API addition. Dissolution data proved the suitability of extruded starch matrices as a sustained release dosage form. Monitoring of consumed energies during the cutting process could be linked to changes in viscosity. The established PAT system enables the detection of small variations in material properties and can be an important tool to further improve process stability.

Concepts: Viscosity, Strength of materials, Compressive strength, Work hardening, Industry, Extrusion, Rheometer, Starch gelatinization

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This study investigated the physical properties of maize (MS) and wheat (WS) starches derivatized with 5-(4,6-dichlorotriazinyl)aminofluorescein (model cross-linking system) to have the same overall fluorescence intensity on starch molecules, but reacted either more uniformly throughout granules (UD) or more at granule surfaces (SD). Both MS and WS derivatives had lower swelling powers (SP) at 90°C than their respective native starches. The UD derivatives had lower SP (90°C) and greater retrogradation enthalpies than did SD derivatives, consistent with their lower peak and higher setback pasting viscosities. Also, SD starches were less soluble and retained a greater degree of granular integrity than UD starches in time-lapse, hot-stage light microscopy studies (50-95°C), likely due to a greater concentration of cross-links at the granule surface. The results confirm that derivatization patterns impact the physical properties of modified starches. Thus, varying derivatization patterns can be a strategy to tailor modified starch properties.

Concepts: Temperature, Wheat, Starch, Maize, Rice, Starch gelatinization, Retrogradation, Modified starch

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Bio-plastics and bio-materials are composed of natural or biomass derived polymers, offering solutions to solve immediate environmental issues. Polysaccharide-based bio-plastics represent important alternatives to conventional plastic because of their intrinsic biodegradable nature. Amylose-only (AO), an engineered barley starch with 99% amylose, was tested to produce cross-linked all-natural bioplastic using normal barley starch as a control. Glycerol was used as plasticizer and citrate cross-linking was used to improve the mechanical properties of cross-linked AO starch extrudates. Extrusion converted the control starch from A-type to Vh- and B-type crystals, showing a complete melting of the starch crystals in the raw starch granules. The cross-linked AO and control starch specimens displayed an additional wide-angle diffraction reflection. Phospholipids complexed with Vh-type single helices constituted an integrated part of the AO starch specimens. Gas permeability tests of selected starch-based prototypes demonstrated properties comparable to that of commercial Mater-Bi(©) plastic. The cross-linked AO prototypes had composting characteristics not different from the control, indicating that the modified starch behaves the same as normal starch. The data shows the feasibility of producing all-natural bioplastic using designer starch as raw material.

Concepts: Polymer chemistry, Starch, Plastic, Biodegradation, Bioplastic, Amylomaize, Biodegradable plastic, Starch gelatinization

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Resistant starch type IV (RSIV) can be produced by chemical modifications (etherized or esterified) such as conversion, substitution, or cross-linking, which can prevent its digestion by blocking enzyme access and forming atypical linkages. In this research, the effects of barrel temperature (145.86-174.14 °C), the screw speed (42.93-57.07 Hz) and derivatization (esterification) in the formation of RSIV content of directly expanded snacks (second generation snacks) were studied. Potato starch was chemically modified by phosphorylation and succinylation, and expanded by using the extrusion cooking process. Snacks with phosphorylated starch showed expansion index from 2.57 to 3.23, bulk density from 306.19 to 479.00 kg/m(3) and RSIV from 43.27 to 55.81%. Snacks with succinylated starch had expansion index from 3.52 to 3.82, bulk density from 99.85 to 134.51 kg/m(3) and RSIV from 23.17 to 35.01%. The results found in this work showed that it is possible to manufacture extruded directly expanded snacks (second-generation snacks) such as a ready-to-eat (RTE) with good physicochemical properties and without substantial loss of extrusion functionality, which could bring a healthy benefit due to the presence of RSIV.

Concepts: Density, Starch, Physical chemistry, Potato, Bulk density, Extrusion, Potato starch, Starch gelatinization

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Biodegradable blends of urea plasticized thermoplastic starch (UTPS) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) were prepared in a co-rotating twin screw extruder. The UTPS and PCL content varied in a range of 25wt%. The materials were characterized by capillary rheometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), termogravimetry (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and tensile tests. Capillary rheometry showed better interaction between UTPS and PCL at 110°C than at 130°C. SEM showed immiscibility of all blends and good dispersion of UTPS in PCL matrix up to 50wt%. However, a co-continuous morphology was found for UTPS/PCL 75/25. Thermal analysis showed that introducing PCL in UTPS, increased Tonset due to higher thermal stability of PCL, and blends presented an intermediate behavior of neat polymers. The presence of PCL in blends improved significantly the mechanical properties of neat UTPS. Because they are totally biodegradable, these blends can be vehicles for controlled or slow release of nutrients to the soil while degraded.

Concepts: Electron, Electron microscope, Polymer, Soil, Materials science, Differential scanning calorimetry, Scanning electron microscope, Starch gelatinization

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Wheat is the most common grain in the temperate region. Modifying its constituent through food processing improves its functionality and nutrient access. In this study, the combined effect of germination and extrusion on physicochemical properties and nutritional qualities of extrudates and tortilla from wheat was evaluated. Results showed that germination significantly increased (P <0.05) the γ-aminobutyric acid content in germinated whole wheat (GW) and extruded germinated whole wheat (EGW) as compared to the control of whole wheat (WW). Germination also significantly increased the protein content, reducing sugar and total soluble sugar content in GW, while extrusion had much increasing impact on reducing sugar content in extruded samples. Specific mechanical energy during extrusion was reduced as feed moisture content increased from 20 to 30%. Higher extruder screw speed (350 rpm) led to better expansion ratio at low moisture content (20%) as compared to low screw speed (200 rpm). Extrusion significantly increased the starch digestibility but decreased the protein digestibility in extrudates. Tortilla made from 100% WW had about the same physical characteristics, namely color and rollability, with tortilla made from 85% WW with 15% GW, 85% WW with 15% extruded whole wheat (EW), and 85% WW with 15% EGW. Tortilla made from 85% WW with 15% GW showed the largest diameter, thinnest thickness and least extensibility. A 15% extruded germinated wheat (350 rpm) addition in 85% WW showed significant increase of γ-aminobutyric acid content in tortilla compared to the control (100% WW).

Concepts: Protein, Metabolism, Nutrition, Glucose, Aluminium, Physical chemistry, Extrusion, Starch gelatinization

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Objective of this study was to understand the impacts of cellulose fiber with different particle size distributions, and starches with different molecular weights, on the expansion of direct expanded products. Fiber with 3 different particle size distributions (<125, 150 to 250, 300 to 425 μm) and 4 types of starches representing different amylose contents (0%, 23%, 50%, and 70%) were investigated. Feed moisture content (18 ± 0.5 % w.b) and extruder temperature (140 °C) were kept constant and only the extruder screw speed was varied (100, 175, and 250 rpm) to achieve different specific mechanical energy inputs. Fiber particle size and starch type significantly influenced the various product parameters. In general, the smaller fiber particle size resulted in extrudate with higher expansion ratio. Starch with an amylose: amylopectin ratio of 23:77 resulted in highest expansion compared to the other starches, when no fiber was added. Interestingly, starch with 50:50, amylose: amylopectin ratio in combination with smaller fiber particles resulted in product with significantly greater expansion than the control starch extrudates. Aggregation of fiber and shrinkage of surface was observed in the Scanning Electron Microscope images at 10% fiber level. The results suggest the presence of active interactions between the cellulose fiber particles and corn starch molecules during the expansion process. A better understanding of these interactions can help in the development of high fiber extruded products with better expansion.

Concepts: Electron, Starch, Cellulose, Maize, Extrusion, Amylopectin, Amylomaize, Starch gelatinization