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Concept: Stakeholder analysis


Effective conservation requires knowledge exchange among scientists and decision-makers to enable learning and support evidence-based decision-making. Efforts to improve knowledge exchange have been hindered by a paucity of empirically-grounded guidance to help scientists and practitioners design and implement research programs that actively facilitate knowledge exchange. To address this, we evaluated the Ningaloo Research Program (NRP), which was designed to generate new scientific knowledge to support evidence-based decisions about the management of the Ningaloo Marine Park in north-western Australia. Specifically, we evaluated (1) outcomes of the NRP, including the extent to which new knowledge informed management decisions; (2) the barriers that prevented knowledge exchange among scientists and managers; (3) the key requirements for improving knowledge exchange processes in the future; and (4) the core capacities that are required to support knowledge exchange processes. While the NRP generated expansive and multidisciplinary science outputs directly relevant to the management of the Ningaloo Marine Park, decision-makers are largely unaware of this knowledge and little has been integrated into decision-making processes. A range of barriers prevented efficient and effective knowledge exchange among scientists and decision-makers including cultural differences among the groups, institutional barriers within decision-making agencies, scientific outputs that were not translated for decision-makers and poor alignment between research design and actual knowledge needs. We identify a set of principles to be implemented routinely as part of any applied research program, including; (i) stakeholder mapping prior to the commencement of research programs to identify all stakeholders, (ii) research questions to be co-developed with stakeholders, (iii) implementation of participatory research approaches, (iv) use of a knowledge broker, and (v) tailored knowledge management systems. Finally, we articulate the individual, institutional and financial capacities that must be developed to underpin successful knowledge exchange strategies.

Concepts: Scientific method, Decision making, Science, Research, Management, Knowledge, Knowledge management, Stakeholder analysis


Lebanon is a middle-income country with a market-maximized healthcare system that provides limited social protection for its citizens. Estimates reveal that half of the population lacks sufficient health coverage and resorts to out-of-pocket payments. This study triangulated data from a comprehensive review of health packages of countries similar to Lebanon, the Ministry of Public Health statistics, and services suggested by the World Health Organization for inclusion in a health benefits package (HBP). To determine the acceptability and viability of implementing the HBP, a stakeholder analysis was conducted to identify the knowledge, positions, and available resources for the package. The results revealed that the private health sector, having the most resources, is least in favor of implementing the package, whereas the political and civil society sectors support implementation. The main divergence in opinions among stakeholders was on the abolishment of out-of-pocket payments, mainly attributed to the potential abuse of the HBP’s services by users. The study’s findings encourage health decision makers to capitalize on the current political readiness by proposing the HBP for implementation in the path toward universal health coverage. This requires a consultative process, involving all stakeholders, in devising the strategy and implementation framework of a HBP.

Concepts: Health care, Health economics, Universal health care, Public health, Health insurance, World Health Organization, Stakeholder, Stakeholder analysis


Agronomic biofortification (i.e., the application of fertilizer to elevate micronutrient concentrations in staple crops) is a recent strategy recommended for controlling Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDDs). However, its success inevitably depends on stakeholders' appreciation and acceptance of it. By taking Northern Uganda as a case, this study aimed to capture and compare the perceptions of seven key stakeholder groups with respect to agronomic iodine biofortification. Therefore, we employed a SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities & Threats) analysis in combination with an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). Findings show that stakeholders (n= 56) are generally positive about agronomic iodine biofortification in Uganda, as its strengths and opportunities outweighed weaknesses and threats. Cultural acceptance and effectiveness are considered the most important strengths while the high IDD prevalence rate and the availability of iodine deficient soils are key opportunities for further developing agronomic iodine biofortification. Environmental concerns about synthetic fertilizers as well as the time needed to supply iodine were considered crucial weaknesses. The limited use of fertilizer in Uganda was the main threat. While this study provides insight into important issues and priorities for iodine biofortification technology in Uganda, including differences in stakeholder views, the application of the SWOT-AHP method will guide future researchers and health planners conducting stakeholder analysis in similar domains.

Concepts: Ammonia, Fertilizer, Iodine deficiency, Stakeholder, Stakeholder analysis


This article examines why and how a national health insurance (NHI) proposal targeting universal health coverage (UHC) in Nigeria developed over time. The study involved document reviews, in-depth interviews, a further review of preliminary analysis by relevant actors and use of a stakeholder analysis approach. The need for strategies to improve healthcare funding during the economic recession of the 1980s stimulated the proposal. The inclusion of Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) as financing organizations for national health insurance at the expense of sub-national (state) government mechanisms increased credibility of policy implementation but resulted in loss of support from states. The most successful period of the policy process occurred when a new minister of health (strongly supported by the president that displayed interest in UHC) provided leadership through the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH), and effectively managed stakeholders' interests and galvanized their support to advance the policy. Later, the National Health Insurance Scheme (the federal government’s implementing/regulatory agency) assumed this leadership role but has been unable to extend coverage in a significant way. Nigeria’s experience shows that where political leaders are interested in a UHC-related proposal, the strong political leadership they provide considerably enhances the pace of the policy process. However, public officials should carefully guide policymaking processes that involve private sector actors, to ensure that strategies that compromise the chance of achieving UHC are not introduced. In contexts where authority is shared between federal and state governments, securing federal level commitment does not guarantee that a national health insurance proposal has become a ‘national’ proposal. States need to be provided with an active role in the process and governance structure. Finally, the article underscores the utility of retrospective stakeholder analysis in understanding the reasons for changes in stakeholder positions over time, which is useful to guide future policy processes.

Concepts: Universal health care, Health insurance, Federal government of the United States, Policy, Health maintenance organization, Stakeholder, Stakeholder analysis, Systems analysis


Site-Based Data Curation (SBDC) is an approach to managing research data that prioritizes sharing and reuse of data collected at scientifically significant sites. The SBDC framework is based on geobiology research at natural hot spring sites in Yellowstone National Park as an exemplar case of high value field data in contemporary, cross-disciplinary earth systems science. Through stakeholder analysis and investigation of data artifacts, we determined that meaningful and valid reuse of digital hot spring data requires systematic documentation of sampling processes and particular contextual information about the site of data collection. We propose a Minimum Information Framework for recording the necessary metadata on sampling locations, with anchor measurements and description of the hot spring vent distinct from the outflow system, and multi-scale field photography to capture vital information about hot spring structures. The SBDC framework can serve as a global model for the collection and description of hot spring systems field data that can be readily adapted for application to the curation of data from other kinds scientifically significant sites.

Concepts: Mathematics, System, Project management, Yellowstone National Park, Stakeholder analysis, National Park Service, National park, Snake River


The knowledge generated from evidence-based interventions in mental health systems research is seldom translated into policy and practice in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Stakeholder analysis is a potentially useful tool in health policy and systems research to improve understanding of policy stakeholders and increase the likelihood of knowledge translation into policy and practice. The aim of this study was to conduct stakeholder analyses in the five countries participating in the Programme for Improving Mental health carE (PRIME); evaluate a template used for cross-country comparison of stakeholder analyses; and assess the utility of stakeholder analysis for future use in mental health policy and systems research in LMIC.

Concepts: Health care, Scientific method, Health economics, Medicine, Healthcare, Stakeholder, Stakeholder analysis, Systems analysis


The emergence of mobile technology has influenced many service industries including health care. Mobile health (m-Health) applications have been used widely, and many services have been developed that have changed delivery systems and have improved effectiveness of health care services. Stakeholders of m-Health services have various resources and rights that lends to a complexity in service delivery. In addition, abundance of different m-Health services makes it difficult to choose an appropriate service for these stakeholders that include customers, patients, users or even providers. Moreover, a comprehensive framework is not yet provided in the literature that would help manage and evaluate m-health services, considering various stakeholder’s benefits. In this paper, a comprehensive literature review has been done on famous frameworks and models in the field of Information Technology and electronic health with the aim of finding different aspects of developing and managing m-health services. Using the results of literature review and conducting a stakeholder analysis, we have proposed an m-health evaluation framework which evaluates the success of a given m-health service through a three-stage life cycle: (1) Service Requirement Analysis, (2) Service Development, and (3) Service Delivery. Key factors of m-health evaluation in each step are introduced in the proposed framework considering m-health key stakeholder’s benefits. The proposed framework is validated via expert interviews, and key factors in each evaluation step is validated using PLS model. Results show that path coefficients are higher than their threshold which supports the validity of proposed framework.

Concepts: Health care, Health, Project management, Health informatics, Stakeholder, Mobile network operator, Stakeholder analysis, Stakeholder management


The development of “smart stadia”, i.e. the use of “smart technologies” in the way sports stadia are designed and managed, promises to enhance the experience of attending a live match through innovative and improved services for the audience, as well as for the players, vendors and other stadium stakeholders. These developments offer us a timely opportunity to reflect on the ethical implications of the use of smart technologies and the emerging Internet of Things (IoT). The IoT has the potential to radically transform society and is representative of the ways that novel technologies will alter human life. We use Dublin’s Croke Park stadium smart project as a case study for examining the development of smart stadia.

Concepts: Ethics, Project management, Business ethics, Stakeholder, Stakeholder analysis, Stadium, Croke Park, Republic of Ireland national football team


Collaboration between relevant stakeholders in health service planning enables service contextualization and facilitates its success and integration into practice. Although community pharmacy services (CPSs) aim to improve patients' health and quality of life, their integration in primary care is far from ideal. Key stakeholders for the development of a CPS intended at preventing cardiovascular disease were identified in a previous stakeholder analysis. Engaging these stakeholders to create a shared vision is the subsequent step to focus planning directions and lay sound foundations for future work.

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, Cardiovascular disease, Pharmacy, Health science, Project management, Stakeholder, Stakeholder analysis


Local-scale opportunities to address challenges of the water-food nexus in the developing world need to be embraced. Borehole-garden permaculture is advocated as one such opportunity that involves the sustainable use of groundwater spilt at hand-pump operated borehole supplies that is otherwise wasted. Spilt water may also pose health risks when accumulating as a stagnant pond. Rural village community use of this grey-water in permaculture projects to irrigate borehole gardens is proposed to primarily provide economic benefit whereby garden-produce revenue helps fund borehole water-point maintenance. Water-supply sustainability, increased food/nutrition security, health protection from malaria, and business opportunity benefits may also arise. Our goal has been to develop an, experience-based, framework for delivery of sustainable borehole-garden permaculture and associated benefits. This is based upon data collection and permaculture implementation across the rural Chikwawa District of Malawi during 2009-17. We use, stakeholder interviews to identify issues influencing uptake, gathering of stagnant pond occurrence data to estimate amelioration opportunity, quantification of permaculture profitability to validate economic potential, and critical assessment of recent permaculture uptake to identify continuing problems. Permaculture was implemented at 123 sites representing 6% of District water points, rising to 26% local area coverage. Most implementations were at, or near, newly drilled community-supply boreholes; hence, amelioration of prevalent stagnant ponds elsewhere remains a concern. The envisaged benefits of permaculture were manifest and early data affirm projected garden profitability and spin-off benefits of water-point banking and community micro-loan access. However, a diversity of technical, economic, social and governance issues were found to influence uptake and performance. Example issues include greater need for improved bespoke garden design input, on-going project performance assessment, and coordinated involvement of multi-sector governmental-development bodies to underpin the integrated natural-resource management required. The developed framework aims to manage the identified issues and requires the concerted action of all stakeholders. Based on the probable ubiquity of underlying issues, the framework is expected to be generalizable to the wider developing world. However, this particular application of permaculture represents a fraction of its greater potential opportunity for rural communities that should be explored.

Concepts: Agriculture, Sustainability, Water supply, Stakeholder, Stakeholder analysis, Permaculture, Borehole, Chikwawa District