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Concept: St. Louis Cardinals


BACKGROUND:Medial ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstruction is a common procedure performed on Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers in the United States. PURPOSE:To determine (1) the rate of return to pitching (RTP) in the MLB after UCL reconstruction, (2) the RTP rate in either the MLB and minor league combined, (3) performance after RTP, and (4) the difference in the RTP rate and performance between pitchers who underwent UCL reconstruction and matched controls without UCL injuries. STUDY DESIGN:Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS:Major League Baseball pitchers with symptomatic medial UCL deficiency who underwent UCL reconstruction were evaluated. All player, elbow, and surgical demographic data were analyzed. Controls matched by age, body mass index, position, handedness, and MLB experience and performance were selected from the MLB during the same years as those undergoing UCL reconstruction. An “index year” was designated for controls, analogous to the UCL reconstruction year in cases. Return to pitching and performance measures in the MLB were compared between cases and controls. Student t tests were performed for analysis of within-group and between-group variables, respectively. RESULTS:A total of 179 pitchers with UCL tears who underwent reconstruction met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Of these, 148 pitchers (83%) were able to RTP in the MLB, and 174 pitchers were able to RTP in the MLB and minor league combined (97.2%), while only 5 pitchers (2.8%) were never able to RTP in either the MLB or minor league. Pitchers returned to the MLB at a mean 20.5 ± 9.72 months after UCL reconstruction. The length of career in the MLB after UCL reconstruction was 3.9 ± 2.84 years, although 56 of these patients were still currently actively pitching in the MLB at the start of the 2013 season. The revision rate was 3.9%. In the year before UCL reconstruction, pitching performance declined significantly in the cases versus controls in the number of innings pitched, games played, and wins and the winning percentage (P < .05). After surgery, pitchers showed significantly improved performance versus before surgery (fewer losses, a lower losing percentage, lower earned run average [ERA], threw fewer walks, and allowed fewer hits, runs, and home runs) (P < .05). Comparisons between cases and controls for the time frame after UCL reconstruction (cases) or the index year (controls) demonstrated that cases had significantly (P < .05) fewer losses per season and a lower losing percentage. In addition, cases had a significantly lower ERA and allowed fewer walks and hits per inning pitched. CONCLUSION:There is a high rate of RTP in professional baseball after UCL reconstruction. Performance declined before surgery and improved after surgery. When compared with demographic-matched controls, patients who underwent UCL reconstruction had better results in multiple performance measures. Reconstruction of the UCL allows for a predictable and successful return to the MLB.

Concepts: St. Louis Cardinals, Designated hitter, National League, Minor league baseball, Tommy John surgery, Major League Baseball, Baseball, Baseball statistics


The number of Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers requiring ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstructions is increasing. Recent literature has attempted to correlate specific stresses placed on the throwing arm to risk for UCL injury, with limited results.

Concepts: St. Louis Cardinals, Pitcher, American League, World Series, Designated hitter, Baseball, National League, Major League Baseball


Concussions impair balance, visual acuity, and reaction time-all of which are required for high-level batting performance-but the effects of concussion on batting performance have not been reported. The authors examined this relationship between concussion and batting performance among Major League Baseball (MLB) players.

Concepts: St. Louis Cardinals, American Association, American League, San Francisco Giants, National League, Designated hitter, Baseball, Major League Baseball


In part because of the perception that many injuries occur during collisions with the catcher at home plate, Major League Baseball (MLB) officials recently implemented rule changes to prevent these injuries. There is little research on the rate, type, and severity of injuries in MLB catchers.

Concepts: Boston Red Sox, Catcher, St. Louis Cardinals, American League, National League, World Series, Baseball, Major League Baseball


The advent of social media expands our ability to transmit information and connect with others instantly, which enables us to behave as “social sensors.” Here, we studied concurrent bursty behavior of Twitter users during major sporting events to determine their function as social sensors. We show that the degree of concurrent bursts in tweets (posts) and retweets (re-posts) works as a strong indicator of winning or losing a game. More specifically, our simple tweet analysis of Japanese professional baseball games in 2013 revealed that social sensors can immediately react to positive and negative events through bursts of tweets, but that positive events are more likely to induce a subsequent burst of retweets. We confirm that these findings also hold true for tweets related to Major League Baseball games in 2015. Furthermore, we demonstrate active interactions among social sensors by constructing retweet networks during a baseball game. The resulting networks commonly exhibited user clusters depending on the baseball team, with a scale-free connectedness that is indicative of a substantial difference in user popularity as an information source. While previous studies have mainly focused on bursts of tweets as a simple indicator of a real-world event, the temporal correlation between tweets and retweets implies unique aspects of social sensors, offering new insights into human behavior in a highly connected world.

Concepts: St. Louis Cardinals, American League, National League, St. Louis, Missouri, Baseball, Minor league baseball, Nippon Professional Baseball, Major League Baseball


Recent epidemiologic reports have demonstrated rising injury rates in Major League Baseball (MLB) and Minor League Baseball (MiLB). Although several studies have recently been published on specific injuries, the majority of injuries have not yet been formally studied.

Concepts: Milwaukee Brewers, Branch Rickey, Umpire, Promotion and relegation, Baseball, St. Louis Cardinals, Minor league baseball, Major League Baseball


Although sliding occurs frequently in professional baseball, little is known about the epidemiology and effect of injuries that occur during sliding in this population of elite athletes.

Concepts: Professional baseball, Nippon Professional Baseball, Promotion and relegation, Umpire, St. Louis Cardinals, Baseball, Minor league baseball, Major League Baseball


A recent US Major League Baseball (MLB) rule change requires baseball pitchers to deliver pitches within 12 sec.

Concepts: Texas, St. Louis Cardinals, American League, World Series, Designated hitter, Baseball, National League, Major League Baseball


Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstruction surgeries in Major League Baseball (MLB) have increased significantly in recent decades. Although several risk factors have been proposed, a scientific consensus is yet to be reached, providing challenges to those tasked with preventing UCL injuries.

Concepts: St. Louis Cardinals, American League, World Series, Designated hitter, Texas, Baseball, National League, Major League Baseball