SciCombinator

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Concept: Squamous epithelium

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The most compelling reason and primary goal of treating actinic keratoses is to prevent malignant transformation into invasive squamous cell carcinoma, and although there are well established guidelines outlining treatment modalities and regimens for squamous cell carcinoma, the more commonly encountered precancerous actinic lesions have no such standard. Many options are available with variable success and patient compliance rates. Prevention of these lesions is key, with sun protection being a must in treating aging patients with sun damage as it is never too late to begin protecting the skin.

Concepts: Cancer, Medical terms, Anatomical pathology, Squamous cell carcinoma, Squamous epithelium, Prevention, Skin cancer, Actinic keratosis

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Background There is convincing evidence that alcohol consumption increases the risk of cancer of the colorectum, breast, larynx, liver, esophagus, oral cavity and pharynx. Most of the data derive from studies that focused on the effect of moderate/high alcohol intakes, while little is known about light alcohol drinking (up to 1 drink/day). Patients and methods We evaluated the association between light drinking and cancer of the colorectum, breast, larynx, liver, esophagus, oral cavity and pharynx, through a meta-analytic approach. We searched epidemiological studies using PubMed, ISI Web of Science and EMBASE, published before December 2010. Results We included 222 articles comprising ∼92 000 light drinkers and 60 000 non-drinkers with cancer. Light drinking was associated with the risk of oropharyngeal cancer [relative risk, RR = 1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.29], esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (RR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.09-1.56) and female breast cancer (RR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.02-1.08). We estimated that ∼5000 deaths from oropharyngeal cancer, 24 000 from esophageal SCC and 5000 from breast cancer were attributable to light drinking in 2004 worldwide. No association was found for colorectum, liver and larynx tumors. Conclusions Light drinking increases the risk of cancer of oral cavity and pharynx, esophagus and female breast.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Cancer, Breast cancer, Squamous cell carcinoma, Squamous epithelium, Esophagus, Esophageal cancer, Barrett's esophagus

29

The combination of irradiated fibroblast feeder cells and Rho kinase inhibitor, Y-27632, conditionally induces an indefinite proliferative state in primary mammalian epithelial cells. These conditionally reprogrammed cells (CRCs) are karyotype-stable and nontumorigenic. Because self-renewal is a recognized property of stem cells, we investigated whether Y-27632 and feeder cells induced a stem-like phenotype. We found that CRCs share characteristics of adult stem cells and exhibit up-regulated expression of α6 and β1 integrins, ΔNp63α, CD44, and telomerase reverse transcriptase, as well as decreased Notch signaling and an increased level of nuclear β-catenin. The induction of CRCs is rapid (occurs within 2 d) and results from reprogramming of the entire cell population rather than the selection of a minor subpopulation. CRCs do not overexpress the transcription factor sets characteristic of embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells (e.g., Sox2, Oct4, Nanog, or Klf4). The induction of CRCs is also reversible, and removal of Y-27632 and feeders allows the cells to differentiate normally. Thus, when CRCs from ectocervical epithelium or tracheal epithelium are placed in an air-liquid interface culture system, the cervical cells form a well differentiated stratified squamous epithelium, whereas the tracheal cells form a ciliated airway epithelium. We discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities afforded by a method that can generate adult stem-like cells in vitro without genetic manipulation.

Concepts: DNA, Gene expression, Developmental biology, Stem cell, Stem cells, Cellular differentiation, Squamous epithelium, Epithelial cells

28

Interleukin 8 (IL-8) is a pro-angiogenic, pro-inflammatory mediator that belongs to the family of chemokines. Due to its pro-angiogenic characteristic, it may play a vital role in tumour angiogenesis and progression.

Concepts: Inflammation, Cancer, Squamous cell carcinoma, Squamous epithelium, Chemokine, Interleukin 8, Interleukin 8 receptor, beta, Interleukin 8 receptor, alpha

28

J Oral Pathol Med (2013)42: 166-174 Galectins are potent effectors of cell adhesion and growth regulation. Their expression as comples network necessitates systematic study of each member of this family. Toward this aim, we here focus on the tandem-repeat-type galectin-9. Its presence is monitored in normal squamous epithelium of the head and neck, the surgical margin, and four types of squamous cell carcinoma. Lectin presence was detected in cells of the basal layer of the epithelium. All galectin-9-negative epithelia showed aberrant positivity for keratins 14 and 19. The surgical margin presented either a normal pattern of galectin-9 and keratin presence or a mosaic-like presence/absence of galectin-9 and aberrant expression of both keratins 14 and 19. All studied specimens of squamous cell carcinoma were negative for galectin-9. When biotinylated galectin-9, or its N-terminal domain, was tested, no significant tissue reactivity for both probes was observed. Neuraminidase treatment generated reactivity to the N-domain. In conclusion, galectin-9 is expressed in the majority of samples of normal epithelium, along with regular presence of keratins 14 or 19. This lectin can represent a potential marker of normality in the cases of the studied squamous cell epithelia.

Concepts: Protein, Epithelium, Basal lamina, Carcinoma, Skin, Squamous cell carcinoma, Squamous epithelium, Epidermis

28

Cross sectional imaging fills a crucial role in the work up of squamous cell cancer of the head and neck. The radiologist can suggest important considerations in treatment planning and disease prognosis. Key areas of anatomy in radiologic staging are reviewed.

Concepts: Head and neck anatomy, Cancer, Lung cancer, Cancer staging, Radiology, Squamous cell carcinoma, Squamous epithelium, Head and neck cancer

28

To evaluate the effect of larynx and esophageal inlet sparing on dysphagia recovery after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for stage III-IV oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

Concepts: Cancer, Radiation therapy, Feeding tube, Squamous cell carcinoma, Squamous epithelium, Caesium, Head and neck cancer, Barrett's esophagus

28

: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are recruited into cancer-induced stroma and produce a specific microenvironment for cancer progression. CD204 (+) TAMs are reportedly related to tumor progression and clinical outcome in some tumors. The aim of this study was to clarify the correlation between CD204 (+) TAMs and the clinicopathological features of lung squamous cell carcinoma.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Lung cancer, Anatomical pathology, Tumor, Carcinoma, Squamous cell carcinoma, Squamous epithelium

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BACKGROUND: Scalp dermoid cysts are subcutaneous sacs lined with a stratified squamous epithelium containing developmentally mature ectodermal tissues, including skin, hair follicles, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands. METHODS: Because they consist of developmentally mature tissues, scalp dermoid cysts are generally benign. Typically, cysts are limited to an extracranial location, and management generally involves simple surgical resection. DISCUSSION: Because of the potential for intracranial and/or intradural extension associated with some scalp dermoids, however, a comprehensive clinical evaluation incorporating MRI and CT imaging is included in the diagnostic process.

Concepts: Skin, Squamous cell carcinoma, Squamous epithelium, Sebaceous cyst, Epithelial cells, Dermoid cyst, Hair follicle, Sebaceous gland

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Intracranial epidermoid cysts are uncommon lesions with typical radiological and operative findings. We report a midline cystic lesion in the pre-pontine cistern, with radiological features of an epidermoid, but intra-operatively yielding a thin-walled cyst with fluid contents. The cyst wall showed stratified squamous epithelium on histopathology.

Concepts: Squamous cell carcinoma, Squamous epithelium, Sebaceous cyst, Epithelial cells, Cyst, Epidermoid cyst