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Concept: SPSS


BACKGROUND: Trachoma is the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. It is common in areas where the people are socio-economically deprived. The aim of this study was to assess active trachoma and associated risk factors among children 1–9 years in East Gojjam. METHODS: Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Baso Liben District from February to April 2012. A two-stage random cluster-sampling technique was employed and all children 1–9 years old from each household were clinically assessed for trachoma based on simplified WHO 1983 classification. Data were collected by using semi-structured interview, pre-tested questionnaire and observation. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16 statistical package.Result: From a total of 792 children screened for trachoma (of which 50.6% were girls), the overall prevalence of active trachoma was 24.1% consisting of only 17.2% [95% CI: 14.8, 20.1] TF and 6.8% TI. There were variations among children living in low land (29.3%) and in medium land (21.4%). In multivariate analysis, low monthly income (AOR= adjusted odds ratio) 2.98; 95% CI (confidence interval): 1.85-7.85), illiterate family (AOR =5.18; 95% CI: 2.92-9.17); unclean face (AOR =18.68; 95% CI :1.98-175.55); access to water source (AOR=2.01;95% CI: 1.27-3.15); less than 20 liters of water use (AOR=4.88; 95% CI:1.51-15.78); not using soap for face washing (AOR=5.84; 95%CI :1.98-17.19); not using latrine frequently (AOR=1.75; 95% CI:0.01-0.42); density of flies (AOR=3.77; 95%CI: 2.26-6.29); less knowledgeable family (AOR=3.91; 95%CI :2.40-6.38) and average monthly income (AOR=2.98; 95%CI : 1.85-7.85) were found independently associated with trachoma. CONCLUSION: Active trachoma is a major public problem among 1–9 years children and significantly associated with a number of risky factors. Improvement in awareness of facial hygiene, environmental conditions, mass antibiotic distribution and health education on trachoma transmission and prevention should be strengthened in the District.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Medical statistics, Cross-sectional study, Risk, Multivariate statistics, Odds ratio, SPSS


Our purpose was to analyze evidence related to timing of cooling from studies of targeted temperature management (TTM) after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after cardiac arrest and to recommend directions for future therapy optimization. We conducted a preliminary review of studies of both animals and patients treated with post-ROSC TTM and hypothesized that a more rapid cooling strategy in the absence of volume-adding cold infusions would provide improved outcomes in comparison with slower cooling. We defined rapid cooling as the achievement of 34°C within 3.5 hours of ROSC without the use of volume-adding cold infusions, with a ≥3.0°C/hour rate of cooling. Using the PubMed database and a previously published systematic review, we identified clinical studies published from 2002 through 2014 related to TTM. Analysis included studies with time from collapse to ROSC of 20-30 minutes, reporting of time from ROSC to target temperature and rate of patients in ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation, and hypothermia maintained for 20-24 hours. The use of cardiopulmonary bypass as a cooling method was an exclusion criterion for this analysis. We compared all rapid cooling studies with all slower cooling studies of ≥100 patients. Eleven studies were initially identified for analysis, comprising 4091 patients. Two additional studies totaling 609 patients were added based on availability of unpublished data, bringing the total to 13 studies of 4700 patients. Outcomes for patients, dichotomized into faster and slower cooling approaches, were determined using weighted linear regression using IBM SPSS Statistics software. Rapid cooling without volume-adding cold infusions yielded a higher rate of good neurological recovery than slower cooling methods. Attainment of a temperature below 34°C within 3.5 hours of ROSC and using a cooling rate of more than 3°C/hour appear to be beneficial.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Cardiac arrest, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Asystole, Ventricular tachycardia, SPSS, Ventricular fibrillation, Defibrillation


ABSTRACT Background: As ageing is a personal experience, an attitude to ageing questionnaire is essential for capturing the most realistic appraisal of this important stage of life. Our aim was to study the psychometric properties of the Attitudes to Ageing Questionnaire (AAQ) in a sample of Spanish older people. Methods: A total of 242 participants aged 60 years and older were recruited from community centers, primary care centers, and family associations for the mentally ill and dementia. In addition to the AAQ, participants provided information on demographics, self-perception of health, comorbidity, health status (SF-12), depressive symptoms (GDS-30), and quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF and WHOQOL-OLD). Analysis was performed using standard psychometric techniques with SPSS v15.0. Results: No floor and ceiling effects were found, and missing data were low. The internal consistency measured by Cronbach’s alpha for AAQ subscales were 0.59, 0.70, and 0.73. Exploratory Factor Analysis produced a three-factors solution accounting for 34% of the variance. A priori expected associations were found between some AAQ subscales with WHOQOL-BREF domains, with WHOQOL-OLD, SF-12, and the GDS-30 indicating good construct validity. In general, AAQ subscales differentiated between participants with lower and higher levels of education, and between a priori defined groups of older people (non-depressed vs. depressed; those with higher vs. lower physical comorbidities, and non-carers vs. carers). Conclusions: The Spanish version of the AAQ questionnaire showed acceptable psychometric properties in a convenience sample of Spanish older people. It is a useful measure of attitude for use with older people in social and clinical services.

Concepts: Educational psychology, Psychometrics, Factor analysis, Validity, Reliability, Cronbach's alpha, SPSS, Internal consistency


Testing of therapies for disease or injury often involves the analysis of longitudinal data from animals. Modern analytical methods have advantages over conventional methods (particularly when some data are missing), yet they are not used widely by preclinical researchers. Here we provide an easy-to-use protocol for the analysis of longitudinal data from animals, and we present a click-by-click guide for performing suitable analyses using the statistical package IBM SPSS Statistics software (SPSS). We guide readers through the analysis of a real-life data set obtained when testing a therapy for brain injury (stroke) in elderly rats. If a few data points are missing, as in this example data set (for example, because of animal dropout), repeated-measures analysis of covariance may fail to detect a treatment effect. An alternative analysis method, such as the use of linear models (with various covariance structures), and analysis using restricted maximum likelihood estimation (to include all available data) can be used to better detect treatment effects. This protocol takes 2 h to carry out.

Concepts: Statistics, Estimation theory, Sociology, Maximum likelihood, Generalized linear model, SPSS, Covariance matrix, Likelihood function


Bronchiectasis is prevalent in patients with COPD. The objective of this study was to assess the clinical characteristics and prognostic value of bronchiectasis in patients with COPD in China. Data from patients diagnosed with COPD at the Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital between January 2009 and December 2013 were retrospectively collected and analyzed. SPSS statistical software was used to analyze the data. Data from 896 patients with COPD were analyzed. Bronchiectasis was present in 311 patients. The isolation of pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) from sputum was the variable most significantly associated with the presence of bronchiectasis in patients with COPD (hazard ratio (HR), 2.93; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.35-6.37; P = 0.007). During follow-up (median of 21 months; interquartile range: 10-39 months), there were 75 deaths, of which 39 were in the bronchiectasis group. The presence of bronchiectasis (HR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.02-3.08; P = 0.043) was associated with an increase in all-cause mortality in patients with COPD. These results suggest that bronchiectasis in patients with COPD was associated with the isolation of PA from the sputum. Bronchiectasis was an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality in patients with COPD.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Statistics, Pneumonia, Medical statistics, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Interquartile range, Prognosis, SPSS


Analyses of the relationship between levels of implementation and outcomes of school-based social and emotional learning (SEL) interventions are relatively infrequent and are typically narrowly focused. Thus, our objective was to assess the relationship between variability in a range of implementation dimensions and intervention outcomes in the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) curriculum. Implementation of PATHS was examined in 69 classrooms across 23 schools in the first year of a major randomized controlled trial. Implementation data were generated via classroom-level structured observations. In addition to factual data on dosage and reach, exploratory factor analysis of observer ratings revealed two distinct implementation dimensions, namely, “quality and participant responsiveness” and “procedural fidelity.” Student social-emotional skills, pro-social behavior, internalizing symptoms, and externalizing problems were captured through child self-report and teacher informant-report surveys (N = 1721). Hierarchical linear modeling of study data revealed that higher implementation quality and participant responsiveness was associated with significantly lower ratings of students' externalizing problems at 12-month follow-up. Conversely, and contrary to expectations, higher dosage was associated with significantly lower pro-social behavior and social-emotional skills at 12-month follow-up. No significant associations were found between variability in either procedural fidelity or reach and any intervention outcomes. The implications of these findings are discussed, and study limitations are noted.

Concepts: Statistics, Randomized controlled trial, Education, Educational psychology, Psychometrics, Factor analysis, SPSS


We explored the interrelationships among components of cultural connectedness (i.e., identity, traditions, and spirituality) and First Nations youth mental health using a brief version of the original Cultural Connectedness Scale. Participants included 290 First Nations youth (M age = 14.4) who were recruited from both urban and rural school settings in Saskatchewan and Southwestern Ontario. We performed a confirmatory factor analysis of the Cultural Connectedness Scale-Short Version (CCS-S) items to investigate the factor stability of the construct in our sample. We examined the relationships between the CCS-S subscales and self-efficacy, sense of self (present and future), school connectedness, and life satisfaction using hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses to establish the validity of the abbreviated measure. The results revealed that cultural connectedness, as measured by the 10-item CCS-S, had strong associations with the mental health indicators assessed and, in some cases, was associated with First Nations youth mental health above and beyond other social determinants of health. Our results extend findings from previous research on cultural connectedness by elucidating the meaning of its components and demonstrate the importance of culture for positive youth development.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Linear regression, Psychometrics, Meaning of life, Youth, SPSS, Confirmatory factor analysis, Spirituality


Numerous studies on complications associated with eating disorders have been conducted worldwide. However such studies are limited in the Indian scenario. Hence, we attempted to analyse the presence of oxidative stress along with total lipid profiling of students with eating distress in Mysore, South India. A biochemical test panel was conducted using serum samples of controls and subjects. Results were statistically analyzed using SPSS software version 14. Analysis of variance was used to identify significant differences between study groups. Variations in all parameters confirmed the occurrence of oxidative stress and abnormal lipid contents in students prone to eating disorders.

Concepts: Statistics, Statistical significance, Oxidative phosphorylation, Factor analysis, India, Indian Ocean, Analysis of variance, SPSS


Previous studies demonstrated that pain induced by a noxious stimulus during a distraction task is affected by both stimulus-driven and goal-directed processes which interact and change over time. The purpose of this exploratory study was to analyse associations of aspects of subjective pain experience and engagement with the distracting task with attention-sensitive components of noxious laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) on a single-trial basis. A laser heat stimulus was applied to the dorsum of the left hand while subjects either viewed the Rubin vase-face illusion (RVI), or focused on their pain and associated somatosensory sensations occurring on their stimulated hand. Pain-related sensations occurring with every laser stimulus were evaluated using a set of visual analogue scales. Factor analysis was used to identify the principal dimensions of pain experience. LEPs were correlated with subjective aspects of pain experience on a single-trial basis using a multiple linear regression model. A positive LEP component at the vertex electrodes in the interval 294-351 ms (P2) was smaller during focusing on RVI than during focusing on the stimulated hand. Single-trial amplitude variations of the P2 component correlated with changes in Factor 1, representing essential aspects of pain, and inversely with both Factor 2, accounting for anticipated pain, and the number of RVI figure reversals. A source dipole located in the posterior region of the cingulate cortex was the strongest contributor to the attention-related single-trial variations of the P2 component. Instantaneous amplitude variations of the P2 LEP component during switching attention towards pain in the presence of a distracting task are related to the strength of pain experience, engagement with the task, and the level of anticipated pain. Results provide neurophysiological underpinning for the use of distraction analgesia acute pain relief.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Linear regression, Econometrics, Pain, Sensory system, Multivariate adaptive regression splines, Ordinary least squares, SPSS


This study explores important factors of Assistive Technology (AT) and evaluates their relative impact on AT effectiveness and retention. Questionnaire based survey is used for data collection from 327 people with dementia (PWD). This empirical study uses statistical techniques including exploratory factor analysis for factor identification, linear regression for impact study, Kruskal Wallis H and Mann Whitney U tests for the statistical significant study in terms of demographic and characteristics. The exploratory factor analysis results into 11 factors: operational support, physical support, psychological support, social support, cultural match, reduced external help, affordability, travel help, compatibility, effectiveness and retention. The results reveal that social support, psychological support and travel help and reduced external help strongly impact on AT effectiveness and retention. The users are motivated by socialization support through using AT without any external help. The use of AT during travelling improves confidence of the PWD and helps them psychologically.

Concepts: Statistics, Sociology, Educational psychology, Psychometrics, Factor analysis, Statistical hypothesis testing, SPSS, Raymond Cattell