SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Sprint Nextel

31

Over the past decade, it has been convincingly shown that regularly performing repeated brief supramaximal cycle sprints (sprint interval training [SIT]) is associated with aerobic adaptations and health benefits similar to or greater than with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). SIT is often promoted as a time-efficient exercise strategy, but the most commonly studied SIT protocol (4-6 repeated 30-s Wingate sprints with 4 min recovery, here referred to as ‘classic’ SIT) takes up to approximately 30 min per session. Combined with high associated perceived exertion, this makes classic SIT unsuitable as an alternative/adjunct to current exercise recommendations involving MICT. However, there are no indications that the design of the classic SIT protocol has been based on considerations regarding the lowest number or shortest duration of sprints to optimise time efficiency while retaining the associated health benefits. In recent years, studies have shown that novel SIT protocols with both fewer and shorter sprints are efficacious at improving important risk factors of noncommunicable diseases in sedentary individuals, and provide health benefits that are no worse than those associated with classic SIT. These shorter/easier protocols have the potential to remove many of the common barriers to exercise in the general population. Thus, based on the evidence summarised in this current opinion paper, we propose that there is a need for a fundamental change in focus in SIT research in order to move away from further characterising the classic SIT protocol and towards establishing acceptable and effective protocols that involve minimal sprint durations and repetitions.

Concepts: Health insurance, Exercise, Running, Protocol, Focus, Common cold, Sprint Nextel, Interval training

30

When investigators enroll patients in a clinical study, they make an implicit contract with each participant. Through the data and safety monitoring board (DSMB) mechanism, they fulfill the first part of the contract - protecting the participant from avoidable harm that might result from participation in the trial. They fulfill the second part of the contract - the commitment to honor the time at risk that the participant spent in the trial - by deriving the clearest and most clinically directive information possible from the data gathered during the trial. This task takes tremendous time and energy. The SPRINT (Systolic . . .

Concepts: Clinical trial, Participation, Pharmaceutical industry, Clinical research, The Trial, Clinical death, Board game, Sprint Nextel

29

Kratky, S and Müller, E. Sprint running with a body-weight supporting kite reduces ground contact time in well-trained sprinters. J Strength Cond Res 27(5): 1215-1222, 2013-It is well founded that ground contact time is the crucial part of sprinting because the available time window to apply force to the ground diminishes with growing running velocity. In view of this knowledge, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of body-weight support during full-effort sprints on ground contact time and selected stride parameters in 19 Austrian male elite sprinters. A kite with a lifting effect combined with a towing system to erase drag was used. The subjects performed flying 20-m sprints under 3 conditions: (a) free sprint; (b) body-weight supported sprint-normal speed (BWS-NS); and © body-weight supported sprint-overspeed (BWS-OS). Sprint cycle characteristics were recorded during the high-speed phase by an optical acquisition system. Additionally, running velocity was derived from the 20-m sprint time. Compared with the fastest free sprint, running velocity, step length, and step frequency remained unchanged during BWS-NS, whereas ground contact time decreased (-5.80%), and air time increased (+5.79%) (both p < 0.001). Throughout, BWS-OS ground contact time (-7.66%) was reduced, whereas running velocity (+2.72%), air time (+4.92%), step length (+1.98%) (all p < 0.001), and step frequency (+1.05%; p < 0.01) increased. Compared with BWS-NS, BWS-OS caused an increase in running velocity (+3.33%), step length (+1.92%) (both p < 0.001), and step frequency (+1.37%; p < 0.01), whereas ground contact time was diminished (-1.97%; p < 0.001). In summary, sprinting with a body-weight supporting kite appeared to be a highly specific method to simulate an advanced performance level, indicated by higher running velocities requiring reduced ground contact times. The additional application of an overspeed condition led to a further reduction of ground contact time. Therefore, we recommend body-weight supported sprinting as an additional tool in sprint training.

Concepts: Velocity, Running, Support, Sprint, Sprint Nextel, Sprinter, Relay race, 60 metres

28

The ability of the human body to generate maximal power is linked to a host of performance outcomes and sporting success. Power-force-velocity relationships characterize limits of the neuromuscular system to produce power, and their measurement has been a common topic in research for the past century. Unfortunately, the narrative of the available literature is complex, with development occurring across a variety of methods and technology. This review focuses on the different equipment and methods used to determine mechanical characteristics of maximal exertion human sprinting. Stationary cycle ergometers have been the most common mode of assessment to date, followed by specialized treadmills used to profile the mechanical outputs of the limbs during sprint running. The most recent methods use complex multiple-force plate lengths in-ground to create a composite profile of over-ground sprint running kinetics across repeated sprints, and macroscopic inverse dynamic approaches to model mechanical variables during over-ground sprinting from simple time-distance measures during a single sprint. This review outlines these approaches chronologically, with particular emphasis on the computational theory developed and how this has shaped subsequent methodological approaches. Furthermore, training applications are presented, with emphasis on the theory underlying the assessment of optimal loading conditions for power production during resisted sprinting. Future implications for research, based on past and present methodological limitations, are also presented. It is our aim that this review will assist in the understanding of the convoluted literature surrounding mechanical sprint profiling, and consequently improve the implementation of such methods in future research and practice.

Concepts: Scientific method, Algorithm, Human body, Running, Sprint, Sprint Nextel, Relay race

28

The aim of this study was to examine in highly-trained young soccer players whether substantial changes in either maximal sprinting speed (MSS) or maximal aerobic speed (as inferred from peak incremental test speed, VVam-Eval) can affect repeated high-intensity running during games. Data from 33 players (14.5±1.3 years), who presented substantial changes in either MSS or VVam-Eval throughout 2 consecutive testing periods (~3 months) were included in the final analysis. For each player, time-motion analyses were performed using a global positioning system (1-Hz) during 2-10 international club games played within 1-2 months from/to each testing period of interest (n for game analyzed=109, player-games=393, games per player per period=4±2). Sprint activities were defined as at least a 1-s run at intensities higher than 61% of individual MSS. Repeated-sprint sequences (RSS) were defined as a minimum of 2 consecutive sprints interspersed with a maximum of 60 s of recovery. Improvements in both MSS and VVam-Eval were likely associated with a decreased RSS occurrence, but in some positions only (e. g., - 24% vs. - 3% for improvements in MSS in strikers vs. midfielders, respectively). The changes in the number of sprints per RSS were less clear but also position-dependent, e. g., +7 to +12% for full-backs and wingers, - 5 to - 7% for centre-backs and midfielders. In developing soccer players, changes in repeated-sprint activity during games do not necessarily match those in physical fitness. Game tactical and strategic requirements are likely to modulate on-field players' activity patterns independently (at least partially) of players' physical capacities.

Concepts: Running, Global Positioning System, Sprint, Sprint Nextel

26

The aim of this study was to compare BMI and the effects of a session of acute exercise on serum beta-endorphin levels among the sprint swimmers and runners.

Concepts: Sprint Nextel

24

The Sprint Fidelis defibrillator lead (Medtronic) was recalled in 2007 due to an increased risk of failure. The generator exchange (GE) procedure has been associated with the development of Fidelis lead dysfunction. The aim of this study was to compare the rate of dysfunction between Sprint Fidelis and other defibrillator leads during the first year after GE.

Concepts: Artificial pacemaker, Sprint Nextel, Medtronic

8

Moderately trained male subjects (mean age 25 years; range 19-33 years) completed an 8-week exercise training intervention consisting of continuous moderate cycling at 157 ± 20 W for 60 min (MOD; n = 6) or continuous moderate cycling (157 ± 20 W) interspersed by 30-sec sprints (473 ± 79 W) every 10 min (SPRINT; n = 6) 3 days per week. Sprints were followed by 3:24 min at 102 ± 17 W to match the total work between protocols. A muscle biopsy was obtained before, immediately and 2 h after the first training session as well as at rest after the training session. In both MOD and SPRINT, skeletal muscle AMPKThr172and ULKSer317phosphorylation was elevated immediately after exercise, whereas mTORSer2448and ULKSer757phosphorylation was unchanged. Two hours after exercise LC3I, LC3II and BNIP3 protein content was overall higher than before exercise with no change in p62 protein. In MOD, Beclin1 protein content was higher immediately and 2 h after exercise than before exercise, while there were no differences within SPRINT. Oxphos complex I, LC3I, BNIP3 and Parkin protein content was higher after the training intervention than before in both groups, while there was no difference in LC3II and p62 protein. Beclin1 protein content was higher after the exercise training intervention only in MOD. Together this suggests that exercise increases markers of autophagy in human skeletal muscle within the first 2 h of recovery and 8 weeks of exercise training increases the capacity for autophagy and mitophagy regulation. Hence, the present findings provide evidence that exercise and exercise training regulate autophagy in human skeletal muscle and that this in general was unaffected by interspersed sprint bouts.

Concepts: Metabolism, Muscle, Physical exercise, Myosin, Training, Skeletal muscle, Muscular system, Sprint Nextel

8

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a five-week lower limb unilateral or bilateral strength programme on measures of strength, sprinting and change of direction speed.Eighteen academy rugby players (18.1 ± 0.5 years, 97.4 ± 11.3 kg, 183.7 ± 11.3 cm) were randomly assigned to either a unilateral (UNI) or bilateral (BI) group. The UNI group squatted exclusively with the rear elevated split squat (RESS), whereas the BI group trained only with the bilateral back squat (BS). Both groups trained at a relative percentage of the respective one repetition max (1RM) twice weekly over a five-week period. Subjects were assessed at baseline and post-intervention for 1RM BS, 1RM RESS, 10 m sprint, 40 m sprint and Pro agility.There was a significant main effect of time for 1RM BS (F(1,16) = 86.5, p < 0.001), ES (0.84< Cohen d< 0.92), 1RM RESS (F(1,16) = 133.0, p < 0.001) ES (0.89< Cohen d <0.94). 40m sprint (F(1,16) = 14.4, p = 0.002) ES (0.47

Concepts: Orders of magnitude, Effectiveness, Sprint, Sprint Nextel, Rugby football

5

This assessor-blinded, randomized controlled superiority trial investigated the efficacy of the 10-week Nordic Hamstring exercise (NHE) protocol on sprint performance in football players. Thirty-five amateur male players (age: 17-26 years) were randomized to a do-as-usual control group (CG; n = 17) or to 10-weeks of supervised strength training using the NHE in-season (IG; n = 18). A repeated-sprint test, consisting of 4 × 6 10 m sprints, with 15 s recovery period between sprints and 180 s between sets, was conducted to evaluate total sprint time as the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were best 10 m sprint time (10mST) and sprint time during the last sprint (L10mST). Additionally, peak eccentric hamstring strength (ECC-PHS) and eccentric hamstring strength capacity (ECC-CAPHS) were measured during the NHE. Ten players were lost to follow-up, thus 25 players were analyzed (CG n = 14; IG n = 11). Between-group differences in mean changes were observed in favor of the IG for sprint performance outcomes; TST (-0.649 s, p = 0.056, d = 0.38), 10mST (-0.047 s, p = 0.005, d = 0.64) and L10mST (-0.052 s, p = 0.094, d = 0.59), and for strength outcomes; ECC-PHS (62.3 N, p = 0.006, d = 0.92), and ECC-CAPHS (951 N, p = 0.005, d = 0.95). In conclusion, the NHE showed small-to-medium improvements in sprint performance and large increases in peak eccentric hamstring strength and capacity.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Effectiveness, Physical exercise, Exercise, Efficacy, Strength training, Outcome, Sprint Nextel