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Concept: Sport


There is dogma that higher training load causes higher injury rates. However, there is also evidence that training has a protective effect against injury. For example, team sport athletes who performed more than 18 weeks of training before sustaining their initial injuries were at reduced risk of sustaining a subsequent injury, while high chronic workloads have been shown to decrease the risk of injury. Second, across a wide range of sports, well-developed physical qualities are associated with a reduced risk of injury. Clearly, for athletes to develop the physical capacities required to provide a protective effect against injury, they must be prepared to train hard. Finally, there is also evidence that under-training may increase injury risk. Collectively, these results emphasise that reductions in workloads may not always be the best approach to protect against injury.

Concepts: Injuries, Injury, Protection, Physical trauma, Sport, Knitting, Scout Motto


Lower limb injuries in sport are increasingly prevalent and responsible for large economic as well as personal burdens. In this review we seek to determine which easily implemented functional neuromuscular warm-up strategies are effective in preventing lower limb injuries during sports participation and in which sporting groups they are effective.

Concepts: Effectiveness, Limb, Sport, Stadium


Information on sleep quality and insomnia symptomatology among elite athletes remains poorly systematised in the sports science and medicine literature. The extent to which performance in elite sport represents a risk for chronic insomnia is unknown.

Concepts: Medicine, Sleep deprivation, Sleep disorder, Circadian rhythm, Hypnotic, Insomnia, Art, Sport


No literature reviews have systematically identified and evaluated research on the psychological determinants of endurance performance, and sport psychology performance enhancement guidelines for endurance sports are not founded on a systematic appraisal of endurance-specific research.

Concepts: Psychology, Philosophy, Clinical psychology, Emotion, Sport, Applied psychology, Sport psychology


To assess the relationship between sport and osteoarthritis (OA), and specifically to determine whether previous participation, in terms of level (elite or non-elite), type of sport, intensity or previous injury, was associated with OA.

Concepts: Systematic review, Meta-analysis, Sport


Athletes who specialize in their sport at an early age may be at risk for burnout, overuse injury, and reduced attainment of elite status. Timing of sport specialization has not been studied in elite basketball athletes.

Concepts: High school, Basketball, Sport, High School Musical, Status attainment, National Basketball Association, American Basketball Association


In our daily lives, we use faces as a major source of information about other people. Recent work has begun to highlight how one’s facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) is linked to a number of behaviours (e.g. deception, aggression and financial performance in firms). fWHR has also been linked to several factors that may be beneficial for sport (e.g. achievement drive, winning mentality and aggression). Despite this, few studies have examined the relationship between fWHR and sports performance, and these have focused on Caucasian sportsmen. Here, we investigated the relationship between fWHR and baseball performance in professional Japanese baseball players. We show that fWHR is positively related with home run performance across two consecutive seasons. The findings provide the first evidence linking fWHR to baseball performance and linking fWHR to behavioural outcomes in Asian participants.

Concepts: Human behavior, Baseball, Sport, Major League Baseball, Minor league baseball, Nippon Professional Baseball, Run, Home run


Following periods of physical activity, it is not uncommon for exercisers to increase their energy intake as a reward deemed ‘earned’. Consumers' awareness of the energy within food and expended from exercise has previously been found to be limited. Therefore, the aim was to investigate whether habitual exercisers (50 adults and 49 children from 5 sports clubs) were able to conceptualise the energy expenditure (EE), following 1 h of their regular sports training, into a quantifiable amount of perceived energy compensation (PEC) in the form of food (chocolate) or drink (sports drink). Mean percentage accuracy for the PEC against EE matched <30% (±29%), a significant underestimation irrespective of sex or sport. Percentage accuracy failed to significantly correlate to age. These findings indicate a necessity to improve nutrition education surrounding the energy costs of exercise relative to the energy contained within foods/drinks for both adults and children.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 1 July 2015; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2015.108.

Concepts: Costs, Obesity, Physical exercise, Exercise, Cost, Sport, Cost underestimation, Cost overrun


For athletes affected by shoulder problems, the most important expectation is to resume sporting activities. The ability to return to sport is related to several parameters, including the type and level of sport played. By focusing on these parameters, the Degree of Shoulder Involvement in Sports (DOSIS) scale allows for a better assessment of the involvement of the shoulder in sports.

Concepts: Shoulder, Degree of a polynomial, Shoulder problems, Sport


the proportionality model application, based on ideal proportions, would have a great impact on high performance sports, due to best athletes to resemble anthropometrically.

Concepts: Sport