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Concept: Spermatogenesis

185

Spermatogenesis is a complex process reliant upon interactions between germ cells (GC) and supporting somatic cells. Testicular Sertoli cells (SC) support GCs during maturation through physical attachment, the provision of nutrients, and protection from immunological attack. This role is facilitated by an active cytoskeleton of parallel microtubule arrays that permit transport of nutrients to GCs, as well as translocation of spermatids through the seminiferous epithelium during maturation. It is well established that chemical perturbation of SC microtubule remodelling leads to premature GC exfoliation demonstrating that microtubule remodelling is an essential component of male fertility, yet the genes responsible for this process remain unknown. Using a random ENU mutagenesis approach, we have identified a novel mouse line displaying male-specific infertility, due to a point mutation in the highly conserved ATPase domain of the novel KATANIN p60-related microtubule severing protein Katanin p60 subunit A-like1 (KATNAL1). We demonstrate that Katnal1 is expressed in testicular Sertoli cells (SC) from 15.5 days post-coitum (dpc) and that, consistent with chemical disruption models, loss of function of KATNAL1 leads to male-specific infertility through disruption of SC microtubule dynamics and premature exfoliation of spermatids from the seminiferous epithelium. The identification of KATNAL1 as an essential regulator of male fertility provides a significant novel entry point into advancing our understanding of how SC microtubule dynamics promotes male fertility. Such information will have resonance both for future treatment of male fertility and the development of non-hormonal male contraceptives.

Concepts: Testicle, Genetics, Spermatogenesis, DNA, Gene, Spermatozoon, Sertoli cell, Mutation

59

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection of pregnant women can cause congenital malformations including microcephaly, which has focused global attention on this emerging pathogen(1). In addition to transmission by mosquitoes, ZIKV can be detected in the seminal fluid of affected males for extended periods of time and transmitted sexually(2). Here, using a mouse-adapted African ZIKV strain (Dakar 41519), we evaluated the consequences of infection in the male reproductive tract of mice. We observed persistence of ZIKV, but not the closely related Dengue virus (DENV), in the testis and epididymis of male mice, and this was associated with tissue injury that caused diminished testosterone and inhibin B levels, and oligospermia. ZIKV preferentially infected spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, and Sertoli cells in the testis, resulting in cell death and destruction of the seminiferous tubules. Less damage was observed with a contemporary Asian ZIKV strain (H/PF/2013), in part because this virus replicates less efficiently in mice. The extent to which these observations in mice translate to humans remains unclear, but longitudinal studies of sperm function and viability in ZIKV-infected humans seem warranted.

Concepts: Epididymis, Sperm, Spermatogenesis, Reproductive system, Male reproductive system, Reproduction, Spermatozoon, Sertoli cell

44

The lifesaving chemotherapy and radiation treatments that allow patients to survive cancer can also result in a lifetime of side-effects, including male infertility. Infertility in male cancer survivors is thought to primarily result from killing of the spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) responsible for producing spermatozoa since SSCs turn over slowly and are thereby sensitive to antineoplastic therapies. We previously demonstrated that the cytokine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) can preserve spermatogenesis after alkylating chemotherapy (busulfan).

Concepts: Spermatogenesis, Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, Bone marrow, Radiation therapy, Sertoli cell, Spermatocyte, Cancer, Chemotherapy

37

Reconstituting gametogenesis in vitro is a key goal for reproductive biology and regenerative medicine. Successful in vitro reconstitution of primordial germ cells and spermatogenesis has recently had a significant effect in the field. However, recapitulation of oogenesis in vitro remains unachieved. Here we demonstrate the first reconstitution, to our knowledge, of the entire process of mammalian oogenesis in vitro from primordial germ cells, using an estrogen-receptor antagonist that promotes normal follicle formation, which in turn is crucial for supporting oocyte growth. The fundamental events in oogenesis (i.e., meiosis, oocyte growth, and genomic imprinting) were reproduced in the culture system. The most rigorous evidence of the recapitulation of oogenesis was the birth of fertile offspring, with a maximum of seven pups obtained from a cultured gonad. Moreover, cryopreserved gonads yielded functional oocytes and offspring in this culture system. Thus, our in vitro system will enable both innovative approaches for a deeper understanding of oogenesis and a new avenue to create and preserve female germ cells.

Concepts: Spermatogenesis, Reproductive system, Gamete, Oogenesis, Gene, Germ cells, Germ cell, Meiosis

27

One of the most dramatic forms of chromatin reorganization occurs during spermatogenesis, when the paternal genome is repackaged from a nucleosomal to a protamine-based structure. We assessed the role of the canonical histone chaperone CAF1 in Drosophila spermatogenesis. In this process, CAF1 does not behave as a complex, but its subunits display distinct chromatin dynamics. During histone-to-protamine replacement, CAF1-p180 dissociates from the DNA while CAF1-p75 binds and stays on as a component of sperm chromatin. Association of CAF1-p75 with the paternal genome depends on CAF1-p180 and protamines. Conversely, CAF1-p75 binds protamines and is required for their incorporation into sperm chromatin. Histone removal, however, occurs independently of CAF1 or protamines. Thus, CAF1-p180 and CAF1-p75 function in a temporal hierarchy during sperm chromatin assembly, with CAF1-p75 acting as a protamine-loading factor. These results show that CAF1 subunits mediate the assembly of two fundamentally different forms of chromatin.

Concepts: Gene, Genetics, Nucleosome, Chromatin, Histone, Cell nucleus, Spermatogenesis, DNA

27

This study was designed to determine the effects of Compound A on spermatogenesis including assessment of inhibin B levels and on fertility in the male rat over a 15 to 19 weeks treatment and a 19 weeks treatment-free period in control and 30, 60, and 180 mg/kg dose groups (n = 22/group). Compound A in a dose-dependent manner induced various degrees of spermatogenic alterations compatible with Sertoli cells being the primary target, for example, inter- and intracellular Sertoli cell vacuolization and altered cellular morphology followed by germ cell degeneration and marked reduction of epididymidal sperm numbers. Blood-testis barrier remained intact (electron microscopy and hyperosmotic fixation test) until germ cells disappeared. Mating behavior and weights of androgen-dependent prostate and seminal vesicles remained unaffected. Inhibin B levels correlated only with moderate to severe spermatogenic alterations. Ten animals with inhibin B levels below detection limit were encountered and five of these animals were fertile in week 19 but following 19 weeks without treatment, another five animals were rendered infertile and inhibin B levels remained undetectable. In the rat, inhibin B only reflects major spermatogenic alterations and markedly reduced inhibin B levels might indicate irreversibility of these alterations and even infertility.

Concepts: Sperm, Blood-testis barrier, Meiosis, Sertoli cell, Fertility, Testosterone, Spermatogenesis, Spermatozoon

26

Piwi-interacting RNAs are small regulatory RNAs with key roles in transposon silencing and regulation of gametogenesis. The production of mature piwi-interacting RNAs requires a critical step of trimming piwi-interacting RNA intermediates to achieve optimally sized piwi-interacting RNAs. The poly(A)-specific ribonuclease family deadenylase PNLDC1 is implicated in piwi-interacting RNA trimming in silkworms. The physiological function of PNLDC1 in mammals remains unknown. Using Pnldc1-deficient mice, here we show that PNLDC1 is required for piwi-interacting RNA biogenesis, transposon silencing, and spermatogenesis. Pnldc1 mutation in mice inhibits piwi-interacting RNA trimming and causes accumulation of untrimmed piwi-interacting RNA intermediates with 3' end extension, leading to severe reduction of mature piwi-interacting RNAs in the testis. Pnldc1 mutant mice exhibit disrupted LINE1 retrotransposon silencing and defect in spermiogenesis. Together, these results define PNLDC1 as a mammalian piwi-interacting RNA biogenesis factor that protects the germline genome and ensures normal sperm production in mice.piRNAs are regulatory RNAs that play a critical role in transposon silencing and gametogenesis. Here, the authors provide evidence that mammalian PNLDC1 is a regulator of piRNA biogenesis, transposon silencing and spermatogenesis, protecting the germline genome in mice.

Concepts: Spermatogenesis, Retrotransposon, Sperm, Gene, DNA, Piwi-interacting RNA, Transposon, RNA

24

The purpose of this review is to describe the endocrine and local testicular factors that contribute to the regulation of the blood-testis barrier (BTB), using information gained from in vivo and in vitro models of BTB formation during/after puberty, and from the maintenance of BTB function during adulthood. In vivo the BTB, in part comprised of tight junctions between adjacent somatic Sertoli cells, compartmentalizes meiotic spermatocytes and post-meiotic spermatids away from the vasculature, and therefore prevents autoantibody production by the immune system against these immunogenic germ cells. This adluminal compartment also features a unique biochemical milieu required for the completion of germ cell development. During the normal process of spermatogenesis, earlier germ cells continually cross into the adluminal compartment, but the regulatory mechanisms and changes in junctional proteins that allow this translocation step without causing a ‘leak’ remain poorly understood. Recent data describing the roles of FSH and androgen on the regulation of Sertoli cell tight junctions and tight junction proteins will be discussed, followed by an examination of the role of paracrine factors, including members of the TGFβ superfamily (TGFβ3, activin A) and retinoid signalling, as potential mediators of junction assembly and disassembly during the translocation process.

Concepts: Puberty, Cell membrane, Immune system, Testicle, Gene, Testosterone, Sertoli cell, Spermatogenesis

23

In this study we analyzed the effect of chronic and low-dose-rate (LDR) radiation on spermatogenic cells of large Japanese field mice ( Apodemus speciosus ) after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident. In March 2014, large Japanese field mice were collected from two sites located in, and one site adjacent to, the FNPP ex-evacuation zone: Tanashio, Murohara and Akogi, respectively. Testes from these animals were analyzed histologically. External dose rate from radiocesium (combined (134)Cs and (137)Cs) in these animals at the sampling sites exhibited 21 μGy/day in Tanashio, 304-365 μGy/day in Murohara and 407-447 μGy/day in Akogi. In the Akogi group, the numbers of spermatogenic cells and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells per seminiferous tubule were significantly higher compared to the Tanashio and Murohara groups, respectively. TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells tended to be detected at a lower level in the Murohara and Akogi groups compared to the Tanashio group. These results suggest that enhanced spermatogenesis occurred in large Japanese field mice living in and around the FNPP ex-evacuation zone. It remains to be elucidated whether this phenomenon, attributed to chronic exposure to LDR radiation, will benefit or adversely affect large Japanese field mice.

Concepts: Electricity generation, Spermatogenesis, Apodemus, Sertoli cell, Nuclear power, Nuclear safety, Meiosis, Chernobyl disaster

16

The proper regulation of spermatogenesis is crucial to ensure the continued production of sperm and fertility. Here, we investigated the function of the H3K4me2 demethylase KDM1A/LSD1 during spermatogenesis in developing and adult mice. Conditional deletion of Kdm1a in the testis just prior to birth leads to fewer spermatogonia and germ cell loss before 3 weeks of age. These results demonstrate that KDM1A is required for spermatogonial differentiation, as well as germ cell survival, in the developing testis. In addition, inducible deletion of Kdm1a in the adult testis results in the abnormal accumulation of meiotic spermatocytes, as well as apoptosis and progressive germ cell loss. These results demonstrate that KDM1A is also required during adult spermatogenesis. Furthermore, without KDM1A, the stem cell factor OCT4 is ectopically maintained in differentiating germ cells. This requirement for KDM1A is similar to what has been observed in other stem cell populations, suggesting a common function. Taken together, we propose that KDM1A is a key regulator of spermatogenesis and germ cell maintenance in the mouse.

Concepts: Sertoli cell, Puberty, Sperm, Spermatogenesis, Cellular differentiation, Germ cell, Meiosis, Gene