Concept: Special Relationship
The special relationship between migraine and epilepsy has been recognized for centuries and was formally acknowledged by Gowers in his 1906 lecture “Borderland of Epilepsy.” The term migralepsy was introduced by Lennox and Lennox in 1960, with multiple cases described in the literature since that time. In the ensuing years, the relationship between migraine and epilepsy has proven complex. The 2 conditions have been found to be comorbid with each other, suggesting a common underlying mechanism or genetic tendency. Specific diseases with both phenotypes provide further evidence of a common pathophysiology, and as the mechanism of migraine has been further elucidated, commonalities with seizure have been recognized. The terms “hemicrania epileptica” and “migraine triggered seizure” were defined by the International Headache Society, formalizing the concept that one can lead to the other. However, case reports and case series in the literature reveal that distinguishing between the 2 entities can be challenging. The concept of migralepsy is likely to evolve as greater understanding of both conditions is gained.
The absorption spectra of monolayer tinene in perpendicular electric fields are studied by the tight-binding model. There are three kinds of special structures, namely shoulders, logarithmical symmetric peaks and asymmetric peaks in the square-root form, corresponding to the optical excitations of the extreme points, saddle points and constant-energy loops. With the increasing field strength, two splitting shoulder structures, which are dominated by the parabolic bands of 5p z orbitals, come to exist because of the spin-split energy bands. The frequency of threshold shoulder declines to zero and then linearly grows. The third shoulder at 0.75~0.85 eV mainly comes from (5p x , 5p y ) orbitals. The former and the latter orbitals, respectively, create the saddle-point symmetric peaks near the M point, while they hybridize with one another to generate the loop-related asymmetric peaks. Tinene quite differs from graphene, silicene, and germanene. The special relationship among the multi-orbital chemical bondings, spin-orbital couplings and Coulomb potentials accounts for the feature-rich optical properties.
Marriage is a very special relationship that has a high potential to influence physical and mental health throughout the adult lifespan and into old age. In this viewpoint, we propose a model that outlines plausible biobehavioral pathways that may underlie previously established spousal interrelations in long-term health trajectories and discuss specific resources that may facilitate favorable outcomes for everyone involved. Specifically, we focus on spousal associations in physical activity as an important health behavior and in stress-related processes as a key daily-life mechanism, which both reveal effects that may accumulate over time to impact longer-term health outcomes. We also consider spousal resources such as collaborative problem solving and joint goals as psychological variables that characterize the dynamics within a given marriage. We conclude by discussing areas in theory and research that are ripe for further consideration and lay out target questions for future inquiry. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.